Snake and Lizard Bites
Poisonous snake or lizard bite
A bite from a poisonous (venomous) snake or lizard requires emergency care. If you have been bitten by a snake or lizard that you know or think might be poisonous, call 911 or other emergency services right away. Don't wait for symptoms to develop.
If you aren't sure what type of snake or lizard bit you, call the Poison Control Center right away to help identify the snake or lizard and find out what to do next. Medicine to counteract the effects of the poison (antivenom) can save a limb or your life.
It's important to stay calm.
Poisonous snakes or lizards found in North America include:
- Pit vipers (family Viperidae), such as a:
- Rattle snake.
- Copperhead snake.
- Cottonmouth (water moccasin).
- Coral snakes.
- Gila monsters and Mexican beaded lizards.
Maine, Alaska, and Hawaii are the only states that don't have at least one poisonous snake species in the wild.
Symptoms of a pit viper snakebite often appear from minutes to hours after a bite. Severe burning pain at the site usually starts within minutes. Then swelling starts spreading out from the bite.
Several things affect how severe a poisonous snake or lizard bite will be. They include:
- The type and size of the snake or lizard.
- How much venom was injected (if any).
- How potent the injected venom is.
- Where and how deep the bite is.
- How many bites there were, and where they occurred on the body.
- The age, size, and health of the person who was bitten.
If you don't have symptoms within 8 to 12 hours, it may be that no venom was injected. This is called a dry bite. At least 25%, and perhaps up to 50%, of bites are dry. If poison is released in the bite, about 35% of the bites have mild injections of poison (envenomations), 25% are moderate, and 10% to 15% are severe.
It's important to remember that a snake only injects part of its venom with each bite. So a snake is still dangerous after the first strike. A bite from a young snake can be serious. And a dead snake, even one with a severed head, can still bite and release venom by reflex action for up to 90 minutes after it dies. Even if you don't have symptoms within 8 hours, keep watching for symptoms for 2 weeks or more.
Nonpoisonous snake or lizard bite
Most snakes and lizards in North America aren't poisonous. Bites may be scary, but most don't cause serious health problems. A bite from a small nonpoisonous snake might leave teeth marks, a minor scrape, or a puncture wound without other symptoms. Home treatment often relieves symptoms and helps prevent infection.
Most nonpoisonous snakebites can be treated at home. But a bite from a large nonpoisonous snake (such as a boa constrictor, a python, or an anaconda) can be more serious. In North America, these snakes are found in the Florida Everglades and zoos, but they may also be kept as exotic pets. The force of the bite can injure the skin, muscles, joints, or bones. Other problems can occur with a nonpoisonous snake or lizard bite even if the reptile is small. A snake or lizard's tooth may break off in a wound. Or a skin infection may occur at the site of the bite.
Check Your Symptoms
The medical assessment of symptoms is based on the body parts you have.
- If you are transgender or nonbinary, choose the sex that matches the body parts (such as ovaries, testes, prostate, breasts, penis, or vagina) you now have in the area where you are having symptoms.
- If your symptoms aren’t related to those organs, you can choose the gender you identify with.
- If you have some organs of both sexes, you may need to go through this triage tool twice (once as "male" and once as "female"). This will make sure that the tool asks the right questions for you.
Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind of care you may need. These include:
- Your age. Babies and older adults tend to get sicker quicker.
- Your overall health. If you have a condition such as diabetes, HIV, cancer, or heart disease, you may need to pay closer attention to certain symptoms and seek care sooner.
- Medicines you take. Certain medicines, such as blood thinners (anticoagulants), medicines that suppress the immune system like steroids or chemotherapy, herbal remedies, or supplements can cause symptoms or make them worse.
- Recent health events, such as surgery or injury. These kinds of events can cause symptoms afterwards or make them more serious.
- Your health habits and lifestyle, such as eating and exercise habits, smoking, alcohol or drug use, sexual history, and travel.
Try Home Treatment
You have answered all the questions. Based on your answers, you may be able to take care of this problem at home.
- Try home treatment to relieve the symptoms.
- Call your doctor if symptoms get worse or you have any concerns (for example, if symptoms are not getting better as you would expect). You may need care sooner.
Pain in adults and older children
- Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that you can't stand it for more than a few hours, can't sleep, and can't do anything else except focus on the pain.
- Moderate pain (5 to 7): The pain is bad enough to disrupt your normal activities and your sleep, but you can tolerate it for hours or days. Moderate can also mean pain that comes and goes even if it's severe when it's there.
- Mild pain (1 to 4): You notice the pain, but it is not bad enough to disrupt your sleep or activities.
Pain in children under 3 years
It can be hard to tell how much pain a baby or toddler is in.
- Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that the baby cannot sleep, cannot get comfortable, and cries constantly no matter what you do. The baby may kick, make fists, or grimace.
- Moderate pain (5 to 7): The baby is very fussy, clings to you a lot, and may have trouble sleeping but responds when you try to comfort him or her.
- Mild pain (1 to 4): The baby is a little fussy and clings to you a little but responds when you try to comfort him or her.
Symptoms of infection may include:
- Increased pain, swelling, warmth, or redness in or around the area.
- Red streaks leading from the area.
- Pus draining from the area.
- A fever.
Certain health conditions and medicines weaken the immune system's ability to fight off infection and illness. Some examples in adults are:
- Diseases such as diabetes, cancer, heart disease, and HIV/AIDS.
- Long-term alcohol and drug problems.
- Steroid medicines, which may be used to treat a variety of conditions.
- Chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer.
- Other medicines used to treat autoimmune disease.
- Medicines taken after organ transplant.
- Not having a spleen.
Symptoms of a severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) may include:
- The sudden appearance of raised, red areas (hives) all over the body.
- Rapid swelling of the throat, mouth, or tongue.
- Trouble breathing.
- Passing out (losing consciousness). Or you may feel very lightheaded or suddenly feel weak, confused, or restless.
A severe reaction can be life-threatening. If you have had a bad allergic reaction to a substance before and are exposed to it again, treat any symptoms as an emergency. Even if the symptoms are mild at first, they may quickly become very severe.
Usually found in dirt and soil, tetanus bacteria typically enter the body through a wound. Wounds may include a bite, a cut, a puncture, a burn, a scrape, insect bites, or any injury that may cause broken skin.
You may need a tetanus shot depending on how dirty the wound is and how long it has been since your last shot.
- For a dirty wound that has things like dirt, saliva, or feces in it, you may need a shot if:
- You haven't had a tetanus shot in the past 5 years.
- You don't know when your last shot was.
- For a clean wound, you may need a shot if:
- You have not had a tetanus shot in the past 10 years.
- You don't know when your last shot was.
Shock is a life-threatening condition that may quickly occur after a sudden illness or injury.
Adults and older children often have several symptoms of shock. These include:
- Passing out (losing consciousness).
- Feeling very dizzy or lightheaded, like you may pass out.
- Feeling very weak or having trouble standing.
- Not feeling alert or able to think clearly. You may be confused, restless, fearful, or unable to respond to questions.
Shock is a life-threatening condition that may occur quickly after a sudden illness or injury.
Babies and young children often have several symptoms of shock. These include:
- Passing out (losing consciousness).
- Being very sleepy or hard to wake up.
- Not responding when being touched or talked to.
- Breathing much faster than usual.
- Acting confused. The child may not know where he or she is.
Symptoms of difficulty breathing can range from mild to severe. For example:
- You may feel a little out of breath but still be able to talk (mild difficulty breathing), or you may be so out of breath that you cannot talk at all (severe difficulty breathing).
- It may be getting hard to breathe with activity (mild difficulty breathing), or you may have to work very hard to breathe even when you’re at rest (severe difficulty breathing).
Seek Care Today
Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The problem probably will not get better without medical care.
- Call your doctor today to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
- If you cannot reach your doctor or you don't have one, seek care today.
- If it is evening, watch the symptoms and seek care in the morning.
- If the symptoms get worse, seek care sooner.
Seek Care Now
Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.
- Call your doctor now to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
- If you cannot reach your doctor or you don't have one, seek care in the next hour.
- You do not need to call an ambulance unless:
- You cannot travel safely either by driving yourself or by having someone else drive you.
- You are in an area where heavy traffic or other problems may slow you down.
Call 911 Now
Based on your answers, you need emergency care.
Call 911 or other emergency services now.
Sometimes people don't want to call 911. They may think that their symptoms aren't serious or that they can just get someone else to drive them. Or they might be concerned about the cost. But based on your answers, the safest and quickest way for you to get the care you need is to call 911 for medical transport to the hospital.
Poisonous snake or lizard bite
If you were bitten by a snake or lizard that you know or think is poisonous, call 911 or other emergency services right away. Don't wait for symptoms to develop. Symptoms may progress from mild to severe rapidly.
If you aren't sure what type of snake or lizard bit you, take a picture of it. But don't do this if it will delay treatment or put someone at risk for more bites. Don't waste time or take any risks trying to kill or bring in the snake. Only trap a poisonous snake if the chances are good that it will bite more people if you let it go. It's important to remember that a snake only injects part of its venom with each bite. So it can still hurt you after the first strike. And a dead snake, even one with a severed head, can bite and release venom by reflex action for up to 90 minutes after it dies.
Medicine (antivenom) to counteract the effects of the poison can save a limb or your life. Antivenom is given as soon as a doctor decides it's needed, usually within the first 4 hours after the snakebite. Antivenom may be effective up to 2 weeks or more after a snakebite. Take these steps after a poisonous snake or lizard bite.
- Start home treatment right away.
But don't delay getting emergency care while you start home treatment.
- If you think the snake bite is an emergency, call 911.
- Stay calm, and try to rest quietly.
- If you aren't sure what type of snake or lizard bit you, call a Poison Control Center right away to help identify the snake or lizard and find out what to do next.
- Remove any jewelry. The limbs might swell, making it harder to remove the jewelry after swelling starts.
- Use a pen to mark the edge of the swelling around the bite every 15 minutes. This will help your doctor estimate how the venom is moving in your body.
- Avoid doing anything that might cause more problems with the bite.
- Do not cut the bite open.
- Do not suck on the bite wound or use any kind of extraction device.
- Do not use a constriction band, such as a tourniquet or bandage, on a bite.
- Do not soak your hand or foot in ice water or pack your arm or leg in ice. It can increase damage to the skin and cause a cold-induced injury, such as frostbite.
- Do not raise the bitten arm or leg above your head. It may increase the flow of venom into the bloodstream.
- Do not drink alcohol.
- Do not give any prescription or nonprescription medicines after a poisonous snake or lizard bite unless your doctor tells you to. Some medicines, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen, may cause increased bleeding.
Nonpoisonous snake or lizard bite
If you are sure that the snake or lizard wasn't poisonous, you can use home treatment to reduce symptoms and prevent infection.
- Stop bleeding with direct pressure to the wound.
- Inspect the wound.
- Look at the wound to make sure that a snake or lizard tooth isn't in the wound.
- Remove a tooth with tweezers. Take care to not push it farther into the wound.
- Clean the wound to prevent complications.
Clean the bite as soon as you can. This will help reduce the chance of infection, scarring, and tattooing of the skin from dirt left in the wound.
- Wash the wound for 5 minutes with large amounts of clean, warm water.
- Do not use rubbing alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, iodine, or Mercurochrome. They can harm the tissue and slow wound healing.
- Bandage the wound, if needed.
Puncture wounds usually heal well. They may not need a bandage. But you may want to use a bandage if you think that the bite will get dirty or irritated.
- Cover the wound with a thin layer of petroleum jelly, such as Vaseline, and a nonstick bandage.
- Apply a clean bandage when your bandage gets wet or dirty.
- Determine whether you need a tetanus shot.
- Apply ice.
An ice or cold pack may help reduce swelling and bruising. Never apply ice directly to a wound or the skin. It could cause tissue damage.
For the next 4 to 5 days, soak the wound in warm water for 20 minutes, 2 to 4 times a day. The warmth from the water will increase the blood flow to the area. This helps reduce the chance of infection.
When to call for help during self-care
Call a doctor if any of the following occur during self-care at home:
- New or worse signs of an infection, such as redness, warmth, swelling, pus, or a fever.
- Symptoms occur more often or are more severe.
Preparing For Your Appointment
You can help your doctor diagnose and treat your condition by being prepared for your appointment.
Current as of: March 9, 2022
Author: Healthwise Staff
William H. Blahd Jr. MD, FACEP - Emergency Medicine
Adam Husney MD - Family Medicine
Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine
Sean P. Bush MD, FACEP - Emergency Medicine, Envenomation Specialist