Breath-holding spells are brief periods—usually lasting no longer than a minute—when a young child stops breathing. These spells usually result from anger, fear, pain, or frustration and are not a deliberate behavior on the child's part.
The two main types of breath-holding spells are cyanotic, caused by the change in breathing pattern, or pallid, caused by a slowing of the heart rate.
Breath-holding spells are most common in children ages 1 to 3 years. Breath-holding spells are usually not serious and do not cause permanent damage or affect a child's future health. Most children gradually outgrow them.
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