Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalopathy

National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.

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Important
It is possible that the main title of the report Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalopathy is not the name you expected.

Disorder Subdivisions

  • None

General Discussion

Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract causing gastrointestinal dysmotility, weakness of extra-ocular muscles causing drooping of the eyelids (ptosis) and restricted eye movements (ophthalmoparesis), degeneration of peripheral nerves causing altered sensation and weakness the distal arms and legs, and general wasting (cachexia). The specific symptoms associated with MNGIE vary from case to case and may include vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and numbness or sensations of pins and needles in the hands and feet. . Additional findings may occur in some cases. MNGIE is caused by changes (mutations) in the TYMP gene encoding thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.

MNGIE patients also show changes (e.g. depletions, deletions, or point mutations) in the genetic material (DNA) of the mitochondria. Mitochondria, found by the hundreds within virtually every cell of the body, generate most of the cellular energy through the respiratory chain enzymes (complexes I-V), which convert electrons derived from sugars and fats into ATP, the energy currency of the cell. The genetic blueprints for essential components of the respiratory chain are mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Disorders due to mitochondrial dysfunction, often defects of the respiratory chain, are called mitochondrial disease. Because energy is essential for many tissue functions, mitochondrial diseases typically affect multiple organs of the body.

Supporting Organizations

Association of Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders, Inc. (AGMD)

12 Roberts Drive
Bedford, MA 1730
Tel: (781)275-1300
Fax: (781)275-1304
Email: digestive.motility@gmail.com.
Website: http://www.agmd-gimotility.org

Children's Mitochondrial Disease Network

Mayfield House
30 Heber Walk
England, CW9 5JB
United Kingdom
Tel: 440160643946
Fax: 440160643946
Email: info@cmdn.org.uk
Website: http://www.emdn-mitonet.co.uk/

Genetic and Rare Diseases (GARD) Information Center

PO Box 8126
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126
Tel: (301)251-4925
Fax: (301)251-4911
Tel: (888)205-2311
Website: http://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/GARD/

International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

700 W. Virginia St., 201
Milwaukee, WI 53217
USA
Tel: (414)964-1799
Fax: (414)964-7176
Tel: (888)964-2001
Email: iffgd@iffgd.org
Website: http://www.iffgd.org

Let Them Hear Foundation

1900 University Avenue, Suite 101
East Palo Alto, CA 94303
Tel: (650)462-3174
Fax: (650)462-3144
Email: info@letthemhear.org
Website: http://www.letthemhear.org

MitoAction

PO Box 51474
Boston, MA 02205
Tel: (888)648-6228
Fax: (888)648-6228
Email: info@mitoaction.org
Website: http://www.MitoAction.org

Muscular Dystrophy Association

3300 East Sunrise Drive
Tucson, AZ 85718-3208
USA
Tel: (520)529-2000
Fax: (520)529-5300
Tel: (800)572-1717
Email: mda@mdausa.org
Website: http://www.mda.org/

Muscular Dystrophy Campaign

61 Southwark Street
London, SE1 0HL
United Kingdom
Tel: 2078034800
Email: info@muscular-dystrophy.org
Website: http://www.muscular-dystrophy.org

NIH/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

P.O. Box 5801
Bethesda, MD 20824
Tel: (301)496-5751
Fax: (301)402-2186
Tel: (800)352-9424
Website: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/

New Horizons Un-Limited, Inc.

811 East Wisconsin Ave
P.O. Box 510034
Milwaukee, WI 53203
USA
Tel: (414)299-0124
Fax: (414)347-1977
Email: horizons@new-horizons.org
Website: http://www.new-horizons.org

Parent Education Network

500 W. Lott Street Suite A
Buffalo, WY 17402
Tel: (307) 684-2277
Email: npique@wpen.net
Website: http://www.wpen.net/

Society for Muscular Dystrophy Information International

P.O. Box 7490
Nova Scotia, B4V 2X6
Canada
Tel: 9026853961
Fax: 9026853962
Email: smdi@auracom.com
Website: http://www.nsnet.org/smdi/

United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation

8085 Saltsburg Road Suite 201
Pittsburgh, PA 15239
United States
Tel: (412)793-8077
Fax: (412)793-6477
Tel: (888)317-8633
Email: info@umdf.org
Website: http://www.umdf.org

For a Complete Report

This is an abstract of a report from the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). For a full-text version of this report, go to www.rarediseases.org and click on Rare Disease Database under "Rare Disease Information".

The information provided in this report is not intended for diagnostic purposes. It is provided for informational purposes only.

It is possible that the title of this topic is not the name you selected. Please check the Synonyms listing to find the alternate name(s) and Disorder Subdivision(s) covered by this report.

This disease entry is based upon medical information available through the date at the end of the topic. Since NORD's resources are limited, it is not possible to keep every entry in the Rare Disease Database completely current and accurate. Please check with the agencies listed in the Resources section for the most current information about this disorder.

Last Updated:  3/8/2012
Copyright  2012 National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.