Uses

Zinc is an essential mineral that is a component of more than 300 enzymes needed to repair wounds, maintain fertility in adults and growth in children, synthesize protein, help cells reproduce, preserve vision, boost immunity, and protect against free radicals, among other functions.

What Are Star Ratings?

Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.

For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.

3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.

2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.

1 Star For an herb, supported by traditional use but minimal or no scientific evidence. For a supplement, little scientific support.

This supplement has been used in connection with the following health conditions:

Used for Why
3 Stars
Acne Vulgaris
60 to 90 mg daily
Several double-blind trials indicate that taking zinc reduces acne severity. Long-term use requires 1 to 2 mg of copper per day to prevent copper deficiency.

Several double-blind trials indicate that zinc supplements reduce the severity of acne. In one double-blind trial, though not in another, zinc was found to be as effective as oral antibiotic therapy. Doctors sometimes suggest that people with acne take 30 mg of zinc two or three times per day for a few months, then 30 mg per day thereafter. It often takes 12 weeks before any improvement is seen. Long-term zinc supplementation requires 1–2 mg of copper per day to prevent copper deficiency.

3 Stars
Acrodermatitis
30 to 150 mg per day under a doctor's supervision
Supplementing with the correct amount of zinc can completely resolve hereditary acrodermatitis enteropathica

Supplementation with zinc brings about complete remission in hereditary acrodermatitis enteropathica. Zinc supplements in the amount of 30 to 150 mg per day are used by people with this condition. People with acrodermatitis enteropathica need to be monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure that their level of zinc supplementation is adequate and that the zinc supplements are not inducing a copper deficiency.

3 Stars
Common Cold and Sore Throat
Use 13 to 25 mg as gluconate, gluconate-glycine, or acetate in lozenges every two hours
Zinc lozenges used at the first sign of a cold have been shown to help stop the virus and shorten the illness.

Zinc interferes with viral replication in test tubes, may interfere with the ability of viruses to enter cells of the body, may help immune cells to fight a cold, and may relieve cold symptoms when taken as a supplement. In double-blind trials, zinc lozenges have reduced the duration of colds in adults but have been ineffective in children. Lozenges containing zinc gluconate, zinc gluconate-glycine, and, in most trials, zinc acetate have been effective; most other forms of zinc and lozenges flavored with citric acid, tartaric acid, sorbitol, or mannitol have been ineffective. Trials using these other forms of zinc have failed, as have trials that use insufficient amounts of zinc. For the alleviation of cold symptoms, lozenges providing 13 to 25 mg of zinc (as zinc gluconate, zinc gluconate-glycine, or zinc acetate) are used every two hours while awake but only for several days. The best effect is obtained when lozenges are used at the first sign of a cold.

An analysis of the major zinc trials has claimed that evidence for efficacy is “still lacking.” However, despite a lack of statistical significance, this compilation of data from six double-blind trials found that people assigned to zinc had a 50% decreased risk of still having symptoms after one week compared with those given placebo. Some trials included in this analysis used formulations containing substances that may inactivate zinc salts. Other reasons for failure to show statistical significance, according to a recent analysis of these studies, may have been small sample size (not enough people) or not enough zinc given. Thus, there are plausible reasons why the authors were unable to show statistical significance, even though positive effects are well supported in most trials using gluconate, gluconate-glycine, or acetate forms of zinc.

3 Stars
Down’s Syndrome
1 mg per 2.2 lbs (1 kg) of body weight daily
Zinc may improve immune function, reduce infection rates, and stimulate growth. Take under a doctor’s supervision.

Blood levels of the antioxidant minerals selenium and zinc were normal in one study of people with Down’s syndrome, but others have found selenium and zinc levels to be low. In some studies more than 60% of patients with Down’s syndrome had low zinc levels. A preliminary study of selenium supplementation in children with Down’s syndrome found that the antioxidant activity in the body improved; however, the implications of this finding on the long-term health of these people is unclear. Zinc is critical for proper immune function, and in one preliminary study the majority of patients with Down’s syndrome examined had low zinc levels and low immune cell activity. Supplementation with zinc resulted in improved immune cell activity. In preliminary intervention trials, improved immune cell activity was associated with reduced rates of infection in Down’s syndrome patients given supplemental zinc in the amount of 1 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day. A controlled trial, however, did not find zinc, at 25 mg daily for children under 10 years of age and 50 mg for older children, to have these benefits. Zinc has other roles in the body; preliminary data have indicated that zinc supplementation, at 1 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day, improved thyroid function in Down’s syndrome patients, and increased growth rate in children with Down’s syndrome.

3 Stars
Male Infertility
60 mg (plus 2 mg of copper, to prevent depletion) daily
Zinc deficiency leads to reduced numbers of sperm and impotence in men. Taking zinc may correct this problem and improve sperm quality.

Zinc deficiency leads to reduced numbers of sperm and impotence in men. The correlation between blood levels of zinc and sperm quality remains controversial. Infertile men have been reported to have lower levels of zinc in their semen, than do men with normal fertility. Similarly, men with normal sperm density tend to have higher amounts of zinc in their semen, than do men with low sperm counts. However, other studies have found that a high concentration of zinc in the semen is related to decreased sperm motility in infertile men. A few studies have shown that oral zinc supplementation improves both sperm count motility, and the physical characteristics of sperm in some groups of infertile men. For infertile men with low semen zinc levels, a preliminary trial found that zinc supplements (240 mg per day) increased sperm counts and possibly contributed to successful impregnation by 3 of the 11 men. However, these studies all included small numbers of volunteers, and thus the impact of their conclusions is limited. In a controlled trial, 100 men with low sperm motility received either 57 mg of zinc twice daily or a placebo. After three months, there was significant improvement in sperm quality, sperm count, sperm motility, and fertilizing capacity of the sperm. The ideal amount of supplemental zinc remains unknown, but some doctors recommend 30 mg two times per day. Long-term zinc supplementation requires 1–2 mg of copper per day to prevent copper deficiency.

3 Stars
Night Blindness
If deficient: 15 to 30 mg daily (with 1 to 2 mg copper daily, to prevent depletion)
A lack of zinc may reduce the activity of retinol dehydrogenase, an enzyme needed to help vitamin A work in the eye. Zinc helps night blindness in people who are zinc-deficient.

Dietary zinc deficiency is common, and a lack of zinc may reduce the activity of retinol dehydrogenase, an enzyme needed to help vitamin A work in the eye. Zinc helps night blindness in people who are zinc-deficient; therefore, many physicians suggest 15 to 30 mg of zinc per day to support healthy vision. Because long-term zinc supplementation may reduce copper levels, 1 to 2 mg of copper per day (depending on the amount of zinc used) is usually recommended for people who are supplementing with zinc for more than a few weeks.

3 Stars
Wilson’s Disease
Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
Supplementing with zinc may help reduce dietary copper absorption.

Zinc is known for its ability to reduce copper absorption and has been used successfully in patients with Wilson’s disease, with some trials lasting for years years. Researchers have called zinc a “remarkably effective and nontoxic therapy for Wilson’s disease.” The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the use of zinc to treat Wilson’s disease for maintenance therapy following drug therapy, although some scientists recommend that it be considered for initial therapy as well.

Zinc has also been used to keep normal copper levels from rising in people with Wilson’s disease who had previously been treated successfully with prescription drugs. Zinc (50 mg taken three times per day) has been used for such maintenance therapy, though some researchers have used the same amount of zinc to successfully treat people with Wilson’s disease who had not received drug therapy.

Zinc is so effective in lessening the body’s burden of copper that a copper deficiency was reported in someone with Wilson’s disease who took too much (480 mg per day) zinc. Nonetheless, zinc may not help everyone with Wilson’s disease. Sometimes increased copper levels can occur in the liver after zinc supplementation; however, leading researchers believe this increase is temporary and may not be not harmful.

Zinc supplementation (25 mg or 50 mg three times daily) has also been used to successfully treat pregnant women with Wilson’s disease. Management of Wilson’s disease with zinc should only be undertaken with the close supervision of a doctor.

3 Stars
Wound Healing
30 mg daily (with 2 mg copper daily to prevent depletion), or apply topical zinc preparations regularly
Zinc is a component of enzymes needed to repair wounds, and even a mild deficiency can interfere with optimal recovery from everyday tissue damage.

Zinc is a component of many enzymes, including some that are needed to repair wounds. Even a mild deficiency of zinc can interfere with optimal recovery from everyday tissue damage, as well as from more serious trauma. One controlled trial found the healing time of a surgical wound was reduced by 43% with oral supplementation of 50 mg of zinc three times per day, in the form of zinc sulfate.

Whether oral zinc helps tissue healing when no actual zinc deficiency exists is unclear, but doctors often recommend 30 mg of zinc per day for four to six weeks to aid in the healing of wounds. Topical zinc-containing treatments, on the other hand, have improved healing of skin wounds even when there is no deficiency. Long-term oral zinc supplementation must be accompanied by copper supplementation to prevent a zinc-induced copper deficiency. Typically, if 30 mg of zinc are taken each day, it should be accompanied by 2 mg of copper. If 60 mg of zinc are used, it should be accompanied by 3 mg of copper each day.

2 Stars
Acne Rosacea
23 mg three times per day for three months
In a double-blind study, zinc supplements decreased the rosacea severity by about 75%. Long-term zinc users should also take a copper supplement to prevent deficiency.

In a double-blind study, supplementing with zinc (23 mg three times per day for three months) decreased the severity of rosacea by about 75%, whereas no improvement occurred in the placebo group. Mild gastrointestinal upset was reported by 12% of the people taking zinc, but no other significant side effects occurred. Long-term zinc supplementation should be accompanied by a copper supplement, in order to prevent zinc-induced copper deficiency.

2 Stars
Alcohol Withdrawal
Take under medical supervision: 135 to 215 mg daily
Supplementing with zinc may correct the deficiency common in alcoholic liver cirrhosis and may correct the impaired taste function that people with cirrhosis often experience.

Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is associated with zinc deficiency. In a double-blind trial, zinc acetate supplementation (200 mg three times daily, providing a total of 215 mg of elemental zinc per day), given to cirrhosis patients for seven days, significantly improved portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE). A second trial achieved similar results after three months of treatment and a third trial found a beneficial effect from 6 months of treatment with 51 mg per day of zinc in the form of zinc L-carnosine complex. People with cirrhosis sometimes have impaired taste function, and it has been suggested that zinc deficiency may be the cause of this abnormality. Although one study demonstrated that taste problems in cirrhosis are due to the disease process itself and not to zinc deficiency, a double-blind trial showed that 200 mg three times per day of zinc sulfate (providing 135 mg of elemental zinc per day) for six weeks significantly improved taste function in people with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. A doctor should supervise long-term supplementation of zinc in these amounts.

2 Stars
Anorexia
50 mg a day (with 1 to 3 mg copper daily, to protect against depletion)
People with anorexia may be deficient in zinc, in which case supplementing with the mineral can restore levels and improve symptoms.

Zinc deficiency has been detected in people with anorexia or bulimia in most, though not all, studies. In addition, some of the manifestations of zinc deficiency, such as reduced appetite, taste, and smell, are similar to symptoms observed in some cases of anorexia or bulimia.

In an uncontrolled trial, supplementation with 45–90 mg per day of zinc resulted in weight gain in 17 out of 20 anorexics after 8–56 months. In a double-blind study, 35 women hospitalized with anorexia, given 14 mg of zinc per day, achieved a 10% increase in weight twice as fast as the group that received a placebo. In another report, a group of adolescent girls with anorexia, some of whom were hospitalized, was found to be consuming 7.7 mg of zinc per day in their diet—only half the recommended amount. Providing these girls with 50 mg of zinc per day in a double-blind trial helped diminish their depression and anxiety levels, but had no significant effect on weight gain. Anyone taking zinc supplements for more than a few weeks should also supplement with 1 to 3 mg per day of copper to prevent a zinc-induced copper deficiency.

2 Stars
Attention Deficit–Hyperactivity Disorder
If deficient: 15 mg per day
In one study, children with ADHD who received zinc showed significantly greater behavioral improvement, compared with children who received a placebo.

In a double-blind study, children with ADHD who received 15 mg of zinc per day for six weeks showed significantly greater behavioral improvement, compared with children who received a placebo. This study was conducted in Iran, and zinc deficiency has been found to be quite common in certain parts of that country. It is not clear, therefore, to what extent the results of this study apply to children living in other countries.

2 Stars
Birth Defects
15 mg daily
Many doctors recommend a zinc-containing multivitamin to all women of childbearing age who may become pregnant for its potential role in preventing neural tube defects.
In a preliminary study, women with the highest total dietary zinc intake before pregnancy (including zinc from both food and supplements) had a 35% decreased risk of having an NTD-affected pregnancy. However, another preliminary study found no association between blood levels of zinc in pregnant women and the incidence of NTDs. Zinc supplementation (15 mg per day) is considered safe for pregnant women. Given its safety and potential role in preventing NTDs, a zinc-containing multivitamin is recommended by many doctors to all women of childbearing age who may become pregnant.
2 Stars
Bulimia
Refer to label instructions
People with bulimia may be deficient in zinc, in which case supplementing with the mineral can restore levels and improve symptoms.
Zinc deficiency has been detected in people with anorexia or bulimia in most, though not all, studies. In addition, some of the manifestations of zinc deficiency, such as reduced appetite, taste, and smell, are similar to symptoms observed in some cases of anorexia or bulimia.
2 Stars
Canker Sores
150 mg daily plus 1 to 2 mg of copper per day to prevent copper deficiency
Zinc deficiency has been linked with recurrent canker sores, so treating the deficiency may lead to relief. Long-term zinc supplementation requires extra copper to avoid deficiency.

Zinc deficiency has also been linked with recurrent canker sores in preliminary studies and in one case report. A preliminary trial found that supplementation with up to 150 mg of zinc per day reduced recurrences of canker sores by 50 to 100%; participants who were zinc deficient experienced the most consistent benefit. However, a double-blind trial (that did not test people for zinc deficiency) did not find zinc supplements helpful for recurrent canker sores.

2 Stars
Celiac Disease
Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
The malabsorption that occurs in celiac disease can lead to multiple nutritional deficiencies. Supplementing with zinc may correct a deficiency.

The malabsorption that occurs in celiac disease can lead to multiple nutritional deficiencies. The most common nutritional problems in people with celiac disease include deficiencies of essential fatty acids, iron, vitamin D, vitamin K, calcium, magnesium, and folic acid.Zinc malabsorption also occurs frequently in celiac disease and may result in zinc deficiency, even in people who are otherwise in remission. People with newly diagnosed celiac disease should be assessed for nutritional deficiencies by a doctor. Celiac patients who have not yet completely recovered should supplement with a high-potency multivitamin-mineral. Some patients may require even higher amounts of some of these vitamins and minerals—an issue that should be discussed with their healthcare practitioner. Evidence of a nutrient deficiency in a celiac patient is a clear indication for supplementation with that nutrient.

After commencement of a gluten-free diet, overall nutritional status gradually improves. However, deficiencies of some nutrients may persist, even in people who are strictly avoiding gluten. For example, magnesium deficiency was found in 8 of 23 adults with celiac disease who had been following a gluten-free diet and were symptom-free. When these adults were supplemented with magnesium for two years, their bone mineral density increased significantly.

2 Stars
Cold Sores
Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
Topically applied zinc appears to inhibit the replication of the herpes virus and help prevent future outbreaks. Use topical zinc only under a doctor’s supervision.

Zinc preparations have been shown to inhibit the replication of herpes simplex in the test tube. In one study, people with recurrent herpes simplex infections applied a zinc sulfate solution daily to the sores. After healing occurred, the frequency of applications was reduced to once a week for a month, then to twice a month. During an observation period of 16 to 23 months, none of these people experienced a recurrence of their cold sores.

Zinc oxide, the only commercially available form of zinc for topical application, is probably ineffective as a treatment for herpes simplex. Other forms of topical zinc can be obtained by prescription, through a compounding pharmacist. However, because an excessive concentration of zinc may cause skin irritation, topical zinc should be used only with the supervision of a doctor knowledgeable in its use.

2 Stars
Common Cold and Sore Throat
For prevention: 15 mg daily; for treating colds: 30 mg daily at the onset
In one study, oral zinc supplementation significantly reduced both the incidence and duration of the common cold.
Zinc interferes with viral replication in test tubes, may interfere with the ability of viruses to enter cells of the body, may help immune cells to fight a cold, and may relieve cold symptoms when taken as a supplement. In double-blind trials, zinc lozenges have reduced the duration of colds in adults but have been ineffective in children. Lozenges containing zinc gluconate, zinc gluconate-glycine, and, in most trials, zinc acetate have been effective; most other forms of zinc and lozenges flavored with citric acid, tartaric acid, sorbitol, or mannitol have been ineffective. Trials using these other forms of zinc have failed, as have trials that use insufficient amounts of zinc. For the alleviation of cold symptoms, lozenges providing 13 to 25 mg of zinc (as zinc gluconate, zinc gluconate-glycine, or zinc acetate) are used every two hours while awake but only for several days. The best effect is obtained when lozenges are used at the first sign of a cold.

An analysis of the major zinc trials has claimed that evidence for efficacy is “still lacking.” However, despite a lack of statistical significance, this compilation of data from six double-blind trials found that people assigned to zinc had a 50% decreased risk of still having symptoms after one week compared with those given placebo. Some trials included in this analysis used formulations containing substances that may inactivate zinc salts. Other reasons for failure to show statistical significance, according to a recent analysis of these studies, may have been small sample size (not enough people) or not enough zinc given. Thus, there are plausible reasons why the authors were unable to show statistical significance, even though positive effects are well supported in most trials using gluconate, gluconate-glycine, or acetate forms of zinc.

In a double-blind study of children in Turkey, oral zinc supplementation significantly reduced both the incidence (by 29%) and the duration (by 11%) of the common cold. The amount of zinc used in this seven-month study was 15 mg per day for children with an average age of 5.6 years. The amount of supplemental zinc was doubled at the onset of a cold, and this higher amount was continued until symptoms resolved.

2 Stars
Crohn’s Disease
25 to 50 mg of zinc (with 2 to 4 mg of copper to avoid depletion) per day
Zinc is needed to repair intestinal cells damaged by Crohn’s disease. Supplementation may offset some of the deficiency caused by Crohn’s-related malabsorption.

Crohn’s disease often leads to malabsorption. As a result, deficiencies of many nutrients are common. For this reason, it makes sense for people with Crohn’s disease to take a high potency multivitamin-mineral supplement. In particular, deficiencies in zinc, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and iron have been reported. Zinc, folic acid, and vitamin B12 are all needed to repair intestinal cells damaged by Crohn’s disease. Some doctors recommend 25 to 50 mg of zinc (balanced with 2 to 4 mg of copper), 800 mcg of folic acid, and 800 mcg of vitamin B12 daily. Iron status should be evaluated by a doctor before considering supplementation.

2 Stars
Eczema
Refer to label instructions
In a preliminary study, eczema severity and itching improved significantly more in the children who received zinc than in the control group.
In a preliminary study, children (average age, 6 years) with eczema who had a low concentration of zinc in their hair were randomly assigned to receive 12 mg of zinc per day by mouth or no supplemental zinc (control group) for 8 weeks. Eczema severity and itching improved significantly more in the children who received zinc than in the control group. The study did not examine whether children with normal hair zinc levels would benefit from supplementation.
2 Stars
Genital Herpes
Apply a topical preparation containing 0.025 to 0.9% zinc several times per day
Applying zinc topically may help prevent outbreaks and has been shown to stop the pain, burning, and tingling of a herpes outbreak.

In a test tube, zinc is capable of inactivating the type of herpes virus responsible for the majority of genital herpes cases. Topical zinc may therefore help prevent outbreaks of genital herpes. One preliminary study treated people (four of whom had genital herpes) with a 4% zinc sulfate solution applied to the site of the initial outbreak. In all cases, the pain, burning, and tingling stopped within 24 hours of beginning the topical zinc therapy. The use of lower concentrations of zinc (0.025–0.05%) has also been shown effective against oral and genital herpes outbreaks. While topical zinc has been shown to be helpful, there is no convincing evidence that oral zinc offers the same benefits.

2 Stars
Halitosis
Regularly use a mouthrinse or toothpaste containing zinc
Zinc is able to reduce the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds in the mouth, thus lessening halitosis.

Preliminary research has also demonstrated the ability of zinc to reduce the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds in the mouth. One study found that the addition of zinc to a baking soda toothpaste lessened halitosis by lowering the levels of these compounds. A mouthrinse containing zinc chloride was seen in another study to neutralize the damaging effect of methyl mercaptan on periodontal tissue in the mouth.

2 Stars
Hepatitis and Hepatitis C
Take zinc L-carnosine supplying 17 mg zinc twice per day
In a preliminary trial, supplementing with betaine improved signs of liver inflammation in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a type of liver inflammation.

Supplementation with 17 mg of zinc twice a day (in the form of a zinc complex of L-carnosine) enhanced the response to interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C, in a preliminary trial. It is not known whether this benefit was due primarily to the zinc or the carnosine, or whether other forms of zinc would have the same effect.

2 Stars
HIV and AIDS Support
12 to 45 mg daily
Zinc levels are frequently low in people with HIV infection. Zinc supplements have been shown to reduce the number of infections in people with AIDS.

Blood levels of both zinc and selenium are frequently low in people with HIV infection. Zinc supplements (45 mg per day) have been shown to reduce the number of infections in people with AIDS. Zinc supplementation (12 mg per day for women, 15 mg per day for men) also slowed the decline in immune function in HIV-infected adults with low blood levels of zinc.

2 Stars
Infection
Refer to label instructions
Zinc deficiencies can impair immune function. Supplementing with zinc has been shown to increase immune function in healthy people. Zinc lozenges have been found helpful in against the common cold.

Marginal deficiencies of zinc result in immune function impairments. In a double-blind study of healthy elderly people, supplementing with 45 mg of zinc per day for one year significantly reduced the frequency of infections. Some doctors recommend lower amounts of supplemental zinc for people experiencing recurrent infections, such as 25 mg per day for adults and even lower amounts for children (depending on body weight). Zinc lozenges have been found helpful in some studies for the common cold. Long-term zinc supplementation should in most cases be accompanied by a copper supplement in order to prevent zinc-induced copper deficiency.

2 Stars
Infectious Diarrhea
Refer to label instructions
Two of the nutrients that may not be absorbed efficiently as a result of diarrhea are zinc and vitamin A, both needed to fight infections.
Two of the nutrients that may not be absorbed efficiently as a result of diarrhea are zinc and vitamin A, both needed to fight infections. In third-world countries, supplementation with zinc and vitamin A has led to a reduction in, or prevention of, infectious diarrhea in children. There is evidence that even children who are not zinc-deficient could benefit from zinc supplementation during an episode of infectious diarrhea, if the diarrhea is being caused by certain specific organisms, such as the organism that causes cholera or some strains of E. coli.
2 Stars
Liver Cirrhosis
Take under medical supervision: 135 to 215 mg daily
Supplementing with zinc may correct the deficiency common in alcoholic liver cirrhosis and may correct the impaired taste function that people with cirrhosis often experience.

Alcoholic liver cirrhosis is associated with zinc deficiency. In a double-blind trial, zinc acetate supplementation (200 mg three times daily, providing a total of 215 mg of elemental zinc per day), given to cirrhosis patients for seven days, significantly improved portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE). A second trial achieved similar results after three months of treatment and a third trial found a beneficial effect from 6 months of treatment with 51 mg per day of zinc in the form of zinc L-carnosine complex. People with cirrhosis sometimes have impaired taste function, and it has been suggested that zinc deficiency may be the cause of this abnormality. Although one study demonstrated that taste problems in cirrhosis are due to the disease process itself and not to zinc deficiency, a double-blind trial showed that 200 mg three times per day of zinc sulfate (providing 135 mg of elemental zinc per day) for six weeks significantly improved taste function in people with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. A doctor should supervise long-term supplementation of zinc in these amounts.

2 Stars
Macular Degeneration
45 mg daily (with 1 to 2 mg of copper to protect against depletion)
Two important enzymes in the retina that are needed for vision require zinc. In one trial, zinc supplementation significantly reduced the rate of visual loss in people with macular degeneration.

Two important enzymes in the retina that are needed for vision require zinc. In a double-blind trial, supplementation with 45 mg of zinc per day for one to two years significantly reduced the rate of visual loss in people with macular degeneration. However, in another double-blind trial, supplementation with the same amount of zinc did not prevent vision loss among people with a particular type of macular degeneration (the exudative form).

2 Stars
Peptic Ulcer
25 to 50 mg daily
Supplementing with zinc may help speed the repair of damaged stomach tissue.

Zinc is also needed for the repair of damaged tissue and has protected against stomach ulceration in animal studies. In Europe, zinc combined with acexamic acid, an anti-inflammatory substance, is used as a drug in the treatment of peptic ulcers. In a small controlled trial, high amounts of zinc accelerated the healing of gastric ulcers compared with placebo. Some doctors suspect that such an exceptionally high intake of zinc may be unnecessary, suggesting instead that people with ulcers wishing to take zinc supplements use only 25 to 50 mg of zinc per day. Even at these lower levels, 1 to 3 mg of copper per day must be taken to avoid copper deficiency that would otherwise be induced by the zinc supplementation.

2 Stars
Peptic Ulcer (Carnosine)
150 mg of zinc carnosine complex twice per day
Studies have shown that a zinc salt of the amino acid carnosine protects against ulcer formation and promotes the healing of existing ulcers.

Experimental animal studies have shown that a zinc salt of the amino acid carnosine exerts significant protection against ulcer formation and promotes the healing of existing ulcers. However, because zinc by itself has been shown to be helpful against peptic ulcer, it is not known how much of the beneficial effect was due to the carnosine. Clinical studies in humans demonstrated that this compound can help eradicate H. pylori, an organism that has been linked to peptic ulcer and stomach cancer. The amount of the zinc carnosine complex used in research studies for eradication of H. pylori is 150 mg twice daily.

2 Stars
Pregnancy and Postpartum Support
Use a prenatal supplement that includes zinc
In one study, women who used a zinc-containing nutritional supplement before and after conception had a 36% decreased chance of having a baby with a neural tube defect.

In a preliminary study, pregnant women who used a zinc-containing nutritional supplement in the three months before and after conception had a 36% decreased chance of having a baby with a neural tube defect, and women who had the highest dietary zinc intake (but took no vitamin supplement) had a 30% decreased risk.

2 Stars
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
Deficient zinc levels have been reported in people with rheumatoid arthritis. Some trials have found that supplementing with zinc reduces rheumatoid arthritis symptoms.

Deficient zinc levels have been reported in people with RA. Some trials have found that zinc reduced RA symptoms, but others have not. Some suggest that zinc might only help those who are zinc-deficient, and, although there is no universally accepted test for zinc deficiency, some doctors check white-blood-cell zinc levels.

2 Stars
Sickle Cell Anemia
Take under medical supervision: 100 mg of zinc (plus 2 mg of copper daily to protect against depletion)
Supplementing with zinc appears to help prevent cell damage and speed healing of leg ulcers associated with sickle cell anemia.

Antioxidant nutrients protect the body’s cells from oxygen-related damage. Many studies show that sickle cell anemia patients tend to have low blood levels of antioxidants, including carotenoids, vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin C, despite adequate intake. Low blood levels of vitamin E in particular have been associated with higher numbers of diseased cells in children and with greater frequency of symptoms in adults. A small, preliminary trial reported a 44% decrease in the average number of diseased cells in six sickle cell anemia patients given 450 IU vitamin E per day for up to 35 weeks. This effect was maintained as long as supplementation continued.

In another preliminary trial, 13 patients with sickle cell anemia were given two supplement combinations for seven to eight months each. The first combination included 109 mg zinc, 153 IU vitamin E, 600 mg vitamin C, and 400 ml (about 14 ounces) of soybean oil containing 11 grams of linoleic acid and 1.5 grams of alpha linolenic acid. The second combination included 140 IU vitamin E, 600 mg vitamin C, and 20 grams of fish oil containing 6 grams of omega-3 fatty acids. Reduction in diseased cells was observed only during the administration of the first protocol. The authors concluded that zinc was the important difference between the two combinations and may be a protector of red blood cell membranes.

Fish oil alone has also been studied. In a double-blind trial, supplementation with menhaden oil, in the amount of 250 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day for one year, reduced the frequency of severe pain episodes by approximately 45%, compared with placebo. This treatment may work by correcting an imbalance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that occurs in people with sickle cell anemia.

The zinc deficiency associated with sickle cell anemia appears to play a role in various aspects of the illness. For example, preliminary research has correlated low zinc levels with poor growth in children with sickle cell anemia. In a preliminary trial, 12 people with sickle cell anemia received 25 mg of zinc every four hours for 3 to 18 months. The number of damaged red blood cells fell from 28% to 18.6%. Addition of 2 mg of copper per day did not inhibit the effect of zinc. (Zinc supplementation in the absence of copper supplementation induces a copper deficiency.) Patients with the highest number of damaged red blood cells had a marked response to zinc, but those with lower levels of damaged cells (less than 20% irreversibly sickled cells) had little or no response.

Chronic leg ulcers occur in about 75% of adults with sickle cell disease. In a controlled trial, sickle cell patients with low blood levels of zinc received 88 mg of zinc three times per day for 12 weeks. Ulcer healing rate was more than three times faster in the zinc group than in the placebo group. Zinc supplementation (25 mg 3 times per day for 3 months) also decreased the number of infections in adults with sickle cell anemia.

2 Stars
Skin Ulcers
Take under medical supervision: 50 mg of zinc (plus 1 to 3 mg of copper daily, to prevent depletion) and apply zinc-containing bandages or tape to the area
Supplementing with zinc may help some types of skin ulcer by facilitating tissue growth.

Zinc plays an important role in tissue growth processes important for skin ulcer healing. One study reported that patients with pressure ulcers had lower blood levels of zinc and iron than did patients without pressure ulcers, and preliminary reports suggested zinc supplements could help some types of skin ulcer. Supplementation with 150 mg of zinc per day improved healing in a preliminary study of elderly patients suffering from chronic leg ulcers. Double-blind trials using 135 to 150 mg of zinc daily have shown improvement only in patients with low blood zinc levels, and no improvement in leg ulcer healing. A double-blind trial of 150 mg zinc per day in people with skin ulcers due to sickle cell anemia found that the healing rate was almost three times faster in the zinc group than in the placebo group after six months. Lastly, a preliminary study of patients with skin ulcers due to leprosy found that 50 mg of zinc per day in addition to anti-leprosy medication resulted in complete healing in most patients within 6 to 12 weeks. Long-term zinc supplementation at these levels should be accompanied by supplements of copper and perhaps calcium, iron, and magnesium. Large amounts of zinc (over 50 mg per day) should only be taken under the supervision of a doctor.

Topically applied zinc using zinc-containing bandages has improved healing of leg ulcers in double-blind studies of both zinc-deficient and elderly individuals. Most controlled comparison studies have reported that these bandages are no more effective than other bandages used in the conventional treatment of skin ulcers, but one controlled trial found non-elastic zinc bandages superior to alginate dressings or zinc-containing elastic stockinettes. Two controlled trials of zinc-containing tape for foot ulcers due to leprosy concluded that zinc tape was similarly effective, but more convenient than conventional dressings.

2 Stars
Sprains and Strains
Take under medical supervision: 25 to 50 mg daily ( plus 1 to 3 mg of copper daily, to prevent depletion)
Zinc helps with healing. Even a mild deficiency can interfere with optimal recovery from everyday tissue damage and more serious trauma.

Zinc is a component of many enzymes, including some that are needed to repair wounds. Even a mild deficiency of zinc can interfere with optimal recovery from everyday tissue damage as well as from more serious trauma. Trace minerals, such as manganese, copper, and silicon are also known to be important in the biochemistry of tissue healing. However, there have been no controlled studies of people with sprains or strains to explore the effect of deficiency of these minerals, or of oral supplementation, on the rate of healing.

2 Stars
Thalassemia
If deficient: 22.5 to 90 mg daily
Researchers have reported improved growth rates in zinc-deficient thalassemic children who were given zinc supplements.

Test tube studies have shown that propionyl-L-carnitine (a form of L-carnitine) protects red blood cells of people with thalassemia against free radical damage. In a preliminary study, children with beta thalassemia major who took 100 mg of L-carnitine per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day for three months had a significantly decreased need for blood transfusions. Some studies have found people with thalassemia to be frequently deficient in folic acid, vitamin B12, and zinc. Researchers have reported improved growth rates in zinc-deficient thalassemic children who were given zinc supplements of 22.5 to 90 mg per day, depending on age.Magnesium has been reported to be low in thalassemia patients in some, but not all, studies. A small, preliminary study reported that oral supplements of magnesium, 7.2 mg per 2.2 pounds of body weight per day, improved some red blood cell abnormalities in thalassemia patients.

2 Stars
Tinnitus
Take under medical supervision: 90 mg daily (with 2 or 3 mg per day of copper to prevent depletion)
For people deficient in zinc, supplementing with zinc may help improve their tinnitus.

Zinc supplements have been used to treat people who had both tinnitus and hearing loss (usually age-related). Of those who had initially low blood levels of zinc, about 25% experienced an improvement in tinnitus after taking zinc (90–150 mg per day for three to six months). Such large amounts of zinc should be monitored by a doctor. Two controlled clinical trials found no benefit from zinc supplementation (66 mg per day in one double-blind trial) in people with tinnitus. However, participants in these studies were not zinc deficient. Preliminary research suggests that zinc supplementation is only helpful for tinnitus in people who are zinc deficient. A doctor can measure blood levels of zinc.

2 Stars
Type 1 Diabetes
Consult a qualified healthcare practitioner
Supplementing with zinc may lower blood sugar levels and improve immune function in people with type 1 diabetes.

People with type 1 diabetes tend to be zinc deficient, which may impair immune function. Zinc supplements have lowered blood sugar levels in people with type 1 diabetes.

Some doctors are concerned about having people with type 1 diabetes supplement with zinc because of a report that zinc supplementation increased glycosylation, generally a sign of deterioration of the condition. This trial is hard to evaluate because zinc supplementation increases the life of blood cells and such an effect artificially increases the lab test results for glycosylation. Until this issue is resolved, those with type 1 diabetes should consult a doctor before considering supplementation with zinc.

2 Stars
Type 2 Diabetes
15 to 25 mg per day
People with type 2 diabetes tend to be zinc deficient, supplementing with zinc may help restore levels.
People with type 2 diabetes tend to be zinc deficient, but some evidence indicates that zinc supplementation does not improve their ability to process sugar. Nonetheless, many doctors recommend that people with type 2 diabetes supplement with moderate amounts of zinc (15 to 25 mg per day) as a way to correct the deficit.
2 Stars
Warts
Take under medical supervision: 2.25 mg per 2.2 lbs (1 kg) body weight, up to 135 mg per day
In one study, supplementing with zinc, resulted in complete disappearance of warts in 87% of people treated.

In a double-blind study, supplementation with oral zinc, in the form of zinc sulfate, for two months resulted in complete disappearance of warts in 87% of people treated, whereas none of those receiving a placebo improved. The amount of zinc used was based on body weight, with a maximum of 135 mg per day. Similar results were seen in another double-blind study. These large amounts of zinc should be used under the supervision of a doctor. Side effects included nausea, vomiting, and mild abdominal pain.

1 Star
Athletic Performance
Refer to label instructions
Exercise depletes zinc, and severe zinc deficiency can compromise muscle function. One trial found that zinc improved muscle strength, and another study of athletes with low zinc levels found that zinc improved red blood cell flexibility during exercise, which could benefit blood flow to the muscles.

Exercise increases zinc losses from the human body, and severe zinc deficiency can compromise muscle function. Athletes who do not eat an optimal diet, especially those who are trying to control their weight or use fad diets while exercising strenuously, may become deficient in zinc to the extent that performance or health is compromised. One double-blind trial in women found that 135 mg per day of zinc for two weeks improved one measure of muscle strength. Whether these women were zinc deficient was not determined in this study. A double-blind study of male athletes with low blood levels of zinc found that 20 mg per day of zinc improved the flexibility of the red blood cells during exercise, which could benefit blood flow to the muscles. No other studies of the effects of zinc supplementation in exercising people have been done. A safe amount of zinc for long-term use is 20 to 40 mg per day along with 1 to 2 mg of copper. Higher amounts should be taken only under the supervision of a doctor.

1 Star
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
Refer to label instructions
Zinc has been shown to reduce prostate size in some studies. If you are taking 30 mg or more of zinc per day, most doctors recommend adding 2 to 3 mg of copper to avoid deficiency.

Prostatic secretions are known to contain a high concentration of zinc; that observation suggests that zinc plays a role in normal prostate function. In one preliminary study, 19 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia took 150 mg of zinc daily for two months, and then 50 to 100 mg daily. In 74% of the men, the prostate became smaller. Because this study did not include a control group, improvements may have been due to a placebo effect. Zinc also reduced prostatic size in an animal study but only when given by local injection. Although the research supporting the use of zinc is weak, many doctors recommend its use. Because supplementing with large amounts of zinc (such as 30 mg per day or more) may potentially lead to copper deficiency, most doctors recommend taking 2 to 3 mg of copper per day along with zinc.

1 Star
Childhood Diseases
Refer to label instructions
Zinc is a mineral antioxidant nutrient that the immune system requires. Supplementing with it increases immune activity in people with certain illnesses.

Zinc is another mineral antioxidant nutrient that the immune system requires. Zinc deficiency results in lowered immune defenses, and zinc supplementation increases immune activity in people with certain illnesses. As with vitamin A, zinc levels have been observed to fall during the early stages of measles infection and to return to normal several days later. There is evidence that zinc supplements are helpful in specific viral infections, but there are no data on the effect of zinc on childhood exanthemous infections.

1 Star
Cystic Fibrosis
Refer to label instructions
The malabsorption produced by cystic fibrosis may adversely affect zinc absorption. Supplementing with zinc can help counteract this deficiency.

The malabsorption produced by CF may adversely affect mineral absorption as well. Blood concentrations of zinc were low in a group of children with CF. One child with CF was reported to have a severe generalized dermatitis that resolved upon correction of zinc and fatty acid deficiencies by using a formula containing zinc (about 3 mg per day) and medium chain triglycerides (amount not reported).[REF] In a double-blind trial, supplementation with 30 mg of zinc per day for one year significantly decreased the number of days that children with CF needed antibiotics to treat respiratory infections. The beneficial effect of zinc was more pronounced in children who had low or low–normal plasma zinc levels than in those who had higher levels.

1 Star
Depression
Refer to label instructions
In one study, the addition of a zinc supplement enhanced the beneficial effects of antidepressants.
In a double-blind trial, the addition of a zinc supplement (25 mg per day) enhanced the beneficial effect of antidepressant medication in patients suffering from depression. The average dietary intake of zinc among participants in this study (7.6 mg per day) was below the Recommended Dietary Allowance, so it is not known whether these findings would apply to people consuming adequate amounts of zinc.
1 Star
Dermatitis Herpetiformis
Refer to label instructions
Supplementing with zinc can counteract the nutrient deficiency that often occurs as a result of malabsorption.

People with DH frequently have mild malabsorption (difficulty absorbing certain nutrients) associated with low stomach acid (hypochlorhydria) and inflammation of the stomach lining (atrophic gastritis). Mild malabsorption may result in anemia and nutritional deficiencies of iron, folic acid,vitamin B12, and zinc. More severe malabsorption may result in loss of bone mass. Additional subtle deficiencies of vitamins and minerals are possible, but have not been investigated. Therefore, some doctors recommend people with DH have their nutritional status checked regularly with laboratory studies. These doctors may also recommend multivitamin-mineral supplements and, to correct the low stomach acid, supplemental betaine HCl (a source of hydrochloric acid).

1 Star
Ear Infections
Refer to label instructions
Zinc stimulates immune function, so some doctors recommend zinc supplements for people with recurrent ear infections.

Zinc supplements have also been reported to increase immune function. As a result, some doctors recommend zinc supplements for people with recurrent ear infections, suggesting 25 mg per day for adults and lower amounts for children. For example, a 30-pound child might be given 5 mg of zinc per day while suffering from OM. Nonetheless, zinc supplementation has not been studied in people with ear infections.

1 Star
Gastritis
Refer to label instructions
Zinc is helpful in healing peptic ulcers, which can occur in some types of gastritis.

Zinc and vitamin A, nutrients that aid in healing, are commonly used to help people with peptic ulcers. For example, the ulcers of people taking 50 mg of zinc three times per day healed three times faster than those of people who took placebo. Since some types of gastritis can progress to peptic ulcer, it is possible that taking it may be useful. Nevertheless, the research does not yet show that zinc specifically helps people with gastritis. The amount of zinc used in this study is very high compared with what most people take (15–40 mg per day). Even at these lower levels, it is necessary to take 1–3 mg of copper per day to avoid a zinc-induced copper deficiency.

1 Star
Gestational Hypertension
Refer to label instructions
In one study, supplementing with zinc reduced the incidence of gestational hypertension in a group of pregnant Hispanic women who were not zinc deficient.

Zinc supplementation (20 mg per day) was reported to reduce the incidence of GH in one double-blind trial studying a group of low-income Hispanic pregnant women who were not zinc deficient.

1 Star
Goiter
Refer to label instructions
Deficiencies of zinc can contribute to iodine-deficiency goiter. Supplementing with zinc may help.

When iodine deficiency is present, other nutrient levels become important in the development of goiter. Deficiencies of zinc and manganese can both contribute to iodine-deficiency goiter; however, an animal study found that manganese excess can also be goitrogenic. It has been suggested that selenium deficiency may contribute to goiter. However, when selenium supplements were given to people deficient in both iodine and selenium, thyroid dysfunction was aggravated, and it has been suggested that selenium deficiency may provide some protection when there is iodine deficiency. A study of the effects of selenium supplementation at 100 mcg daily in women without selenium deficiency but with slightly low iodine intake found no effect on thyroid function. The authors concluded that selenium supplementation seems to be safe in people with only iodine deficiency but not in people with combined selenium and iodine deficiencies. In those cases, iodine supplementation has been shown to be most useful. No studies have been done to evaluate the usefulness of supplementation with zinc or manganese to prevent or treat goiter.

1 Star
Hypoglycemia
Refer to label instructions
Zinc helps control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes, and since there are similarities in the way the body regulates high and low blood sugar levels, it might be helpful for hypoglycemia as well.

Research has shown that supplementing with chromium (200 mcg per day) or magnesium (340 mg per day) can prevent blood sugar levels from falling excessively in people with hypoglycemia. Niacinamide (vitamin B3) has also been found to be helpful for hypoglycemic people. Other nutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, copper, manganese, and vitamin B6, may help control blood sugar levels in diabetics. Since there are similarities in the way the body regulates high and low blood sugar levels, these nutrients might be helpful for hypoglycemia as well, although the amounts needed for that purpose are not known.

1 Star
Hypothyroidism
Refer to label instructions
In people with low zinc, supplementing with zinc may increased thyroid hormone levels.

Laboratory animals with severe, experimentally induced zinc deficiency developed hypothyroidism, whereas moderate zinc deficiency did not affect thyroid function. In a small study of healthy people, thyroid hormone (thyroxine) levels tended to be lower in those with lower blood levels of zinc. In people with low zinc, supplementing with zinc increased thyroxine levels. One case has been reported of a woman with severe zinc deficiency (caused by the combination of alcoholism and malabsorption) who developed hypothyroidism that was corrected by supplementing with zinc. Although the typical Western diet is marginally low in zinc, additional research is needed to determine whether zinc supplementation would be effective for preventing or correcting hypothyroidism.

1 Star
Immune Function
25 mg daily
Zinc supplements have been reported to increase immune function. Some doctors recommend zinc supplements for people with recurrent infections.

Most, but not all, double-blind studies have shown that elderly people have better immune function and reduced infection rates when taking a multiple vitamin-mineral formula. In one double-blind trial, supplements of 100 mcg per day of selenium and 20 mg per day of zinc, with or without additional vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene, reduced infections in elderly people, though vitamins without minerals had no effect. Burn victims have also experienced fewer infections after receiving trace mineral supplements in double-blind research. These studies suggest that trace minerals may be the most important micronutrients for enhancing immunity and preventing infections in the elderly.

Zinc supplements have been reported to increase immune function. This effect may be especially important in the elderly according to double-blind studies. Some doctors recommend zinc supplements for people with recurrent infections, suggesting 25 mg per day for adults and lower amounts for children (depending on body weight). However, too much zinc (300 mg per day) has been reported to impair immune function.

While zinc lozenges have been shown to be effective for reducing the symptoms and duration of the common cold in some controlled studies, it is not clear whether this effect is due to an enhancement of immune function or to the direct effect of zinc on the viruses themselves.

1 Star
Insulin Resistance Syndrome
Refer to label instructions
Low zinc intake appears to be associated with several of the risk factors common in IRS, and a low blood level of zinc is associated with insulin resistance in overweight people.

Preliminary studies have reported that low zinc intake is associated with several of the risk factors common in IRS, and a low blood level of zinc is associated with insulin resistance in overweight people. However, people with IRS have not specifically been studied to determine whether they are zinc deficient or whether zinc supplements are helpful for them.

1 Star
Osgood-Schlatter Disease (Manganese, Vitamin B6)
Refer to label instructions
Some doctors have reported good results using a combination of zinc, manganese, and vitamin B6 for people with Osgood-Schlatter disease.

Another group of doctors has reported good results using a combination of zinc, manganese, and vitamin B6 for people with Osgood-Schlatter disease; however, the amounts of these supplements were not mentioned in the report. Most physicians would consider reasonable daily amounts of these nutrients for adolescents to be 15 mg of zinc, 5 to 10 mg of manganese, and 25 mg of vitamin B6. Larger amounts might be used with medical supervision.

1 Star
Osteoporosis
Refer to label instructions
Supplementing with zinc appears to be helpful in both preventing and treating osteoporosis.

One trial studying postmenopausal women combined hormone replacement therapy with magnesium (600 mg per day), calcium (500 mg per day), vitamin C, B vitamins, vitamin D, zinc, copper, manganese, boron, and other nutrients for an eight- to nine-month period. In addition, participants were told to avoid processed foods, limit protein intake, emphasize vegetable over animal protein, and limit consumption of salt, sugar, alcohol, coffee, tea, chocolate, and tobacco. Bone density increased a remarkable 11%, compared to only 0.7% in women receiving hormone replacement alone.

Levels of zinc in both blood and bone have been reported to be low in people with osteoporosis, and urinary loss of zinc has been reported to be high. In one trial, men consuming only 10 mg of zinc per day from food had almost twice the risk of osteoporotic fractures compared with those eating significantly higher levels of zinc in their diets. Whether zinc supplementation protects against bone loss has not yet been proven, though in one trial, supplementation with several minerals including zinc and calcium was more effective than calcium by itself. Many doctors recommend that people with osteoporosis, as well as those trying to protect themselves from this disease, supplement with 10 to 30 mg of zinc per day.

1 Star
Pre- and Post-Surgery Health
Refer to label instructions
Zinc is important for proper immune system function and wound healing. Zinc supplements taken before surgery may prevent zinc deficiency and promote healing.

Zinc is a mineral nutrient important for proper immune system function and wound healing. One study found most surgery patients recovering at home had low dietary intakes of zinc. Low blood levels of zinc have been reported in patients after lung surgery. In one study this deficiency lasted for up to seven days after surgery and was associated with higher risk of pneumonia, while another study found an association between post-operative zinc deficiency and fatigue. Poor post-operative wound healing is also more common in people with zinc deficiency. Zinc supplements given to patients before surgery prevented zinc deficiency in one study, but the effect of these supplements on post-surgical health was not evaluated.

1 Star
Prostatitis
Refer to label instructions
Zinc has antibacterial activity and is a key factor in the natural resistance of male urinary tract infections. Supplementing with it may improve postatitis.

In healthy men, prostatic secretions contain a significant amount of zinc, which has antibacterial activity and is a key factor in the natural resistance of the male urinary tract infection. In CBP and NBP these zinc levels are significantly reduced; however, it is not clear whether this indicates a predisposition to, or is the result of, prostatic infection. Zinc supplements increased semen levels of zinc in men with NBP in one study,but not in another. While zinc supplements have been associated with improvement of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), according to one preliminary report, no research has examined their effectiveness for prostatitis. Nonetheless, many doctors of natural medicine recommend zinc for this condition.

0 Stars
Common Cold and Sore Throat
Not recommended due to a potenially serious side effect
Zinc nasal sprays appear to be effective at shortening the duration of cold symptoms, however, some people have experienced long-lasting or permanent loss of smell after using the spray.

Caution: Using zinc nasal spray has been reported to cause severe or complete loss of smell function. In some of those cases, the loss of smell was long-lasting or permanent.

Zinc interferes with viral replication in test tubes. The beneficial effect of zinc nasal sprays should be weighed against the potentially serious side effect of loss of smell. Since zinc supplements are also effective and do not carry such a risk, it is more advisable to take zinc orally. 

A double-blind trial showed a 74% reduction in symptom duration in people using a zinc nasal spray four times daily, compared with the 42 to 53% reduction reported in trials using zinc gluconate or zinc acetate lozenges. The average duration of symptoms after the beginning of treatment was 2.3 days in the people receiving zinc, compared with 9.0 days in those receiving placebo. However, in another double-blind study, zinc nasal spray was no more effective than a placebo; in both groups the median duration of symptoms was seven days.

How It Works

How to Use It

Moderate intake of zinc, approximately 15 mg daily, is adequate to prevent deficiencies. Higher levels (up to 50 mg taken three times per day) are reserved for people with certain health conditions, under the supervision of a doctor. For the alleviation of cold symptoms, lozenges providing 13–25 mg of zinc in the form zinc gluconate, zinc gluconate-glycine, or zinc acetate are generally used frequently but only for several days.

Where to Find It

Good sources of zinc include oysters, meat, eggs, seafood, black-eyed peas, tofu, and wheat germ.

Possible Deficiencies

Zinc deficiencies are quite common in people living in poor countries. Phytate, a substance found in unleavened bread (pita, matzos, and some crackers) significantly reduces absorption of zinc, increasing the chance of zinc deficiency. However, phytate-induced deficiency of zinc appears to be a significant problem only for people already consuming marginally low amounts of zinc.

Even in developed countries, low-income pregnant women and pregnant teenagers are at risk for marginal zinc deficiencies. Supplementing with 25–30 mg per day improves pregnancy outcome in these groups.1 , 2

People with liver cirrhosis appear to be commonly deficient in zinc.3 This deficiency may be due to cirrhosis-related zinc malabsorption.4

People with Down’s syndrome are also commonly deficient in zinc.5 Giving zinc supplements to children with Down’s syndrome has been reported to improve impaired immunity6 and thyroid function,7 though optimal intake of zinc for people with Down’s syndrome remains unclear.

Children with alopecia areata (patchy areas of hair loss) have been reported to be deficient in zinc.8 , 9

The average diet frequently provides less than the Recommended Dietary Allowance for zinc, particularly in vegetarians. To what extent (if any) these small deficits in zinc intake create clinical problems remains unclear. Nonetheless, a low-potency supplement (15 mg per day) can fill in dietary gaps. Zinc deficiencies are more common in alcoholics and people with sickle cell anemia, malabsorption problems, and chronic kidney disease.10

Best Form to Take

A number of different forms of zinc are used in supplements. Zinc oxide appears to be less bioavailable than other forms, whereas zinc sulfate is not as well tolerated as other forms; therefore, forms other than zinc oxide and zinc sulfate are preferable. There is some evidence indicating that zinc picolinate has better bioavailability than other forms, although zinc citrate, zinc acetate, zinc gluconate, zinc methionine, and zinc aspartate also appear to be acceptable to use. When used in lozenges for colds, zinc acetate and zinc gluconate are the preferred forms.11

Interactions

Interactions with Supplements, Foods, & Other Compounds

Zinc competes for absorption with copper, iron,12 , 13 calcium,14 and magnesium.15 A multimineral supplement will help prevent mineral imbalances that can result from taking high amounts of zinc for extended periods of time.

N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) may increase urinary excretion of zinc.16 Long-term users of NAC may consider adding supplements of zinc and copper.

Interactions with Medicines

Certain medicines interact with this supplement.

Types of interactions: Beneficial Adverse Check

Replenish Depleted Nutrients

  • Amlodipine-Benazepril

    In a study of 34 people with hypertension, six months of captopril or enalapril (ACE inhibitors related to benazepril) treatment led to decreased zinc levels in certain white blood cells, raising concerns about possible ACE inhibitor–induced zinc depletion.

    While zinc depletion has not been reported with benazepril, until more is known, it makes sense for people taking benazepril long term to consider, as a precaution, taking a zinc supplement or a multimineral tablet containing zinc. (Such multiminerals usually contain no more than 99 mg of potassium, probably not enough to trigger the above-mentioned interaction.) Supplements containing zinc should also contain copper, to protect against a zinc-induced copper deficiency.

  • Aspirin

    Intake of 3 grams of aspirin per day has been shown to decrease blood levels of zinc. Aspirin appeared to increase loss of zinc in the urine in this study, and the effect was noted beginning three days after starting aspirin.

  • Atenolol
    Atenolol has been reported to decrease the levels of zinc in blood serum. The clinical significance of that finding is not certain.
  • Benazepril

    In a study of 34 people with hypertension, six months of captopril or enalapril (ACE inhibitors related to benazepril) treatment led to decreased zinc levels in certain white blood cells, raising concerns about possible ACE inhibitor–induced zinc depletion.

    While zinc depletion has not been reported with benazepril, until more is known, it makes sense for people taking benazepril long term to consider, as a precaution, taking a zinc supplement or a multimineral tablet containing zinc. (Such multiminerals usually contain no more than 99 mg of potassium, probably not enough to trigger the above-mentioned interaction.) Supplements containing zinc should also contain copper, to protect against a zinc-induced copper deficiency.

  • Bendroflumethiazide

    Thiazide diuretics can increase urinary zinc loss.

  • Captopril

    Preliminary research has found significant loss of zinc in urine triggered by taking captopril. In this trial, depletion of zinc reduced red blood cell levels of zinc. Although details remain unclear, it now appears that chronic use of captopril may lead to a zinc deficiency.

    It makes sense for people taking captopril long term to consider taking a zinc supplement or a multimineral tablet containing zinc as a precaution. (Such multiminerals usually contain no more than 99 mg of potassium, probably not enough to trigger the above-mentioned interaction.) Supplements containing zinc should also contain copper, to protect against a zinc-induced copper deficiency.

  • Carbamazepine

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Chlorothiazide

    Thiazide diuretics can increase urinary zinc loss.

  • Chlorthalidone

    Thiazide diuretics can increase urinary zinc loss.

  • Cholestyramine

    Bile acid sequestrants may prevent absorption of folic acid and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. Other medications and vitamin supplements should be taken one hour before or four to six hours after bile acid sequestrants for optimal absorption. Animal studies suggest calcium and zinc may also be depleted by taking cholestyramine.

  • Clonazepam

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Colesevelam

    Bile acid sequestrants may prevent absorption of folic acid and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. Other medications and vitamin supplements should be taken one hour before or four to six hours after bile acid sequestrants for optimal absorption. Animal studies suggest calcium and zinc may also be depleted by taking cholestyramine.

  • Colestipol

    Bile acid sequestrants, including colestipol, may prevent absorption of folic acid and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K. People taking colestipol should consult with their doctor about vitamin malabsorption and supplementation. People should take other drugs and vitamin supplements one hour before or four to six hours after colestipol to improve absorption.

    Animal studies suggest calcium and zinc may be depleted by taking cholestyramine, another bile acid sequestrant. Whether these same interactions would occur with colestipol is not known.

  • Desogestrel-Ethinyl Estradiol

    A review of literature suggests that women who use oral contraceptives may experience decreased vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12, C, and zinc levels. Oral contraceptive use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A.Oral contraceptives may interfere with manganese absorption. The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Dexamethasone

    Oral corticosteroids have been found to increase urinary loss of vitamin K, vitamin C, selenium, and zinc. The importance of these losses is unknown.

  • Diazepam

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Divalproex

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Enalapril

    In a study of 34 people with hypertension, six months of captopril or enalapril treatment led to decreased zinc levels in certain white blood cells.

    It makes sense for people taking enalapril long term to consider, as a precaution, taking a zinc supplement or a multimineral tablet containing zinc. (Such multiminerals usually contain no more than 99 mg of potassium, probably not enough to trigger the above-mentioned interaction.) Supplements containing zinc should also contain copper, to protect against a zinc-induced copper deficiency.

  • Eslicarbazepine

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Levonorgestrel

    A review of literature suggests that women who use oral contraceptives may experience decreased vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12, C, and zinc levels. Oral contraceptive use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A.Oral contraceptives may interfere with manganese absorption. The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Norethindrone

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12, C, and zinc levels. OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A. OCs may interfere with manganese absorption. The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Norgestimate

    A review of literature suggests that women who use OCs may experience decreased vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12, C, and zinc levels. OC use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A. OCs may interfere with manganese absorption. The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Ethinyl Estradiol and Norgestrel

    A review of literature suggests that women who use oral contraceptives may experience decreased vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12, C, and zinc levels. Oral contraceptive use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A. Oral contraceptives may interfere with manganese absorption. The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Ethosuximide

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Ethotoin

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Felbamate

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Folic Acid

    Though some studies indicate that supplementing with folic acid reduces blood levels of zinc, most show no interaction between the two nutrients when folic acid is taken at moderate levels. Therefore, until more convincing evidence is available, people taking moderate amounts of folic acid do not need to supplement with zinc. Zinc supplementation is recommended when folic acid intake is high. A doctor should be consulted to determine the appropriate time to add zinc supplementation to folic acid therapy.

  • Fosinopril

    In a study of 34 people with hypertension, six months of captopril or enalapril (ACE inhibitors related to fosinopril) treatment led to decreased zinc levels in certain white blood cells, raising concerns about possible ACE inhibitor–induced zinc depletion.

    While zinc depletion has not been reported with ramipril, until more is known, it makes sense for people taking fosinopril long term to consider, as a precaution, taking a zinc supplement or a multimineral tablet containing zinc. (Such multiminerals usually contain no more than 99 mg of potassium, probably not enough to trigger the above-mentioned interaction.) Supplements containing zinc should also contain copper, to protect against a zinc-induced copper deficiency.

  • Fosphentyoin

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Gabapentin

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Hydrochlorothiazide

    Thiazide diuretics can increase urinary zinc loss.

  • Hydroflumethiazide

    Thiazide diuretics can increase urinary zinc loss.

  • Lacosamide

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Lamotrigine

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Levetiracetam

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Levonorgestrel

    A review of literature suggests that women who use oral contraceptives may experience decreased vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12, C, and zinc levels. Oral contraceptive use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A. Oral contraceptives may interfere with manganese absorption. The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Levonorgestrel-Ethinyl Estrad

    A review of literature suggests that women who use oral contraceptives may experience decreased vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12, C, and zinc levels. Oral contraceptive use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A. Oral contraceptives may interfere with manganese absorption. The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Lisinopril

    In a study of 34 people with hypertension, six months of captopril or enalapril (ACE inhibitors related to lisinopril) treatment led to decreased zinc levels in certain white blood cells, raising concerns about possible ACE inhibitor–induced zinc depletion.

    While zinc depletion has not been reported with lisinopril, until more is known, it makes sense for people taking lisinopril long term to consider, as a precaution, taking a zinc supplement or a multimineral tablet containing zinc. (Such multiminerals usually contain no more than 99 mg of potassium, probably not enough to trigger the above-mentioned interaction.) Supplements containing zinc should also contain copper, to protect against a zinc-induced copper deficiency.

  • Losartan
    Losartan has been reported to increase urinary excretion of zinc, but the clinical significance of that finding is not certain.
  • Mestranol and Norethindrone

    A review of literature suggests that women who use oral contraceptives may experience decreased vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12, C, and zinc levels. Oral contraceptive use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A. Oral contraceptives may interfere with manganese absorption. The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Methsuximide

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Methyclothiazide

    Thiazide diuretics can increase urinary zinc loss.

  • Metolazone

    Thiazide diuretics can increase urinary zinc loss.11

  • Moexipril

    In a study of 34 people with hypertension, six months of captopril or enalapril treatment led to decreased zinc levels in certain white blood cells.

    It makes sense for people taking enalapril long term to consider, as a precaution, taking a zinc supplement or a multimineral tablet containing zinc. (Such multiminerals usually contain no more than 99 mg of potassium, probably not enough to trigger the above-mentioned interaction.) Supplements containing zinc should also contain copper, to protect against a zinc-induced copper deficiency.

  • Norgestimate-Ethinyl Estradiol

    A review of literature suggests that women who use oral contraceptives may experience decreased vitamin B1, B2, B3, B12, C, and zinc levels. Oral contraceptive use has been associated with increased absorption of calcium and copper and with increased blood levels of copper and vitamin A. Oral contraceptives may interfere with manganese absorption. The clinical importance of these actions remains unclear.

  • Oxcarbazepine

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Perindopril

    In a study of 34 people with hypertension, six months of captopril or enalapril (ACE inhibitors related to perindopril) treatment led to decreased zinc levels in certain white blood cells, raising concerns about possible ACE inhibitor–induced zinc depletion.

    While zinc depletion has not been reported with ramipril, until more is known, it makes sense for people taking perindopril long term to consider, as a precaution, taking a zinc supplement or a multimineral tablet containing zinc. (Such multiminerals usually contain no more than 99 mg of potassium, probably not enough to trigger the above-mentioned interaction.) Supplements containing zinc should also contain copper, to protect against a zinc-induced copper deficiency.

  • Phenobarbital

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Phenytoin

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Phenytoin Sodium Extended

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Phenytoin Sodium Prompt

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Polythiazide

    Thiazide diuretics can increase urinary zinc loss.

  • Pregabalin

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Primidone

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Quinapril

    In a study of 34 people with hypertension, six months of captopril or enalapril (ACE inhibitors related to quinapril) treatment led to decreased zinc levels in certain white blood cells, raising concerns about possible ACE inhibitor–induced zinc depletion.

  • Ramipril

    In a study of 34 people with hypertension, six months of captopril or enalapril (ACE inhibitors related to ramipril) treatment led to decreased zinc levels in certain white blood cells, raising concerns about possible ACE inhibitor–induced zinc depletion.

    While zinc depletion has not been reported with ramipril, until more is known, it makes sense for people taking ramipril long term to consider, as a precaution, taking a zinc supplement or a multimineral tablet containing zinc. (Such multiminerals usually contain no more than 99 mg of potassium, probably not enough to trigger the above-mentioned interaction.) Supplements containing zinc should also contain copper, to protect against a zinc-induced copper deficiency.

  • Rufinamide

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Sodium Fluoride

    Individuals who are bedridden for long periods may become deficient in zinc, which can affect the strength of bone that is formed. In a controlled study of healthy adults who were confined to bed, fluoride supplementation prevented zinc loss from the body. Bedridden individuals should consult a qualified healthcare practitioner for guidance in using fluoride to prevent zinc deficiency.

  • Tiagabine

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Topiramate

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Trandolapril

    In a study of 34 people with hypertension, six months of captopril or enalapril (ACE inhibitors related to trandolapril) treatment led to decreased zinc levels in certain white blood cells, raising concerns about possible ACE inhibitor–induced zinc depletion.

    While zinc depletion has not been reported with ramipril, until more is known, it makes sense for people taking trandolapril long term to consider, as a precaution, taking a zinc supplement or a multimineral tablet containing zinc. (Such multiminerals usually contain no more than 99 mg of potassium, probably not enough to trigger the above-mentioned interaction.) Supplements containing zinc should also contain copper, to protect against a zinc-induced copper deficiency.

  • Trichlormethiazide

    Thiazide diuretics can increase urinary zinc loss.

  • Trimethadione

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Valproate

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Valproic Acid

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Vigabatrin

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

  • Zonisamide

    In various studies of children treated with valproic acid for epilepsy compared with control groups, serum zinc levels remained normal or decreased, serum copper levels remained normal or decreased, and red blood cell zinc levels were decreased. The importance of these changes and how frequently they occur remain unclear.

Reduce Side Effects

  • Busulfan

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Capecitabine

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Carboplatin

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Carmustine

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Chlorambucil

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Cisplatin

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Cladribine

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Cytarabine

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Docetaxel

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Erlotinib

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Etoposide

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Floxuridine

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Fludarabine

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Hydroxyurea

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Ifosfamide

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Irinotecan

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Lomustine

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Mechlorethamine

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Melphalan

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Mercaptopurine

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Methotrexate

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Polifeprosan 20 with Carmustine

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Thioguanine

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Thiotepa

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Uracil Mustard

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Vinblastine

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

  • Vincristine

    Irradiation treatment, especially of head and neck cancers, frequently results in changes to normal taste sensation. Zinc supplementation may be protective against taste alterations caused or exacerbated by irradiation. A double-blind trial found that 45 mg of zinc sulfate three times daily reduced the alteration of taste sensation during radiation treatment and led to significantly greater recovery of taste sensation after treatment was concluded.

Support Medicine

  • Alclometasone

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

  • Amcinonide

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

  • AZT

    A study found that adding 200 mg zinc per day to AZT treatment decreased the number of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Candida infections in people with AIDS compared with people treated with AZT alone. The zinc also improved weight and CD4 cell levels. The amount of zinc used in this study was very high and should be combined with 1–2 mg of copper to reduce the risk of immune problems from the zinc long term.

    Preliminary human research suggests AZT therapy may cause a reduction in copper and zinc blood levels. The practical importance of these findings remains unclear.

  • Betamethasone

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

  • Clobetasol

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

  • Clocortolone

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

  • Desonide

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

  • Desoximetasone

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

  • Diflorasone

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

  • Erythromycin-Benzoyl Peroxide

    Using a topical zinc solution with topical erythromycin increases the effectiveness of the antibiotic in the treatment of inflammatory acne.

  • Fluocinonide

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

  • Flurandrenolide

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

  • Fluticasone

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

  • Halcinonide

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

  • Halobetasol

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

  • Hydrocortisone

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

  • Mometasone

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

  • Prednicarbate

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs. Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

Reduces Effectiveness

  • Alendronate

    Taking risedronate at the same time as iron, zinc, or magnesium may reduce the amount of drug absorbed. Therefore, people taking risedronate who wish to supplement with these minerals should take them an hour before or two hours after the drug.

  • Aminosalicylic Acid

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Amoxicillin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Amoxicillin–Potassium Clavulanate

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Ampicillin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Ampicillin Sodium

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Ampicillin with Sulbactam

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Azithromycin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Azithromycin Hydrogen Citrate

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Aztreonam

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Aztreonam in Dextrose(IsoOsm)

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Bacampicillin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Bacitracin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Capreomycin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefaclor

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefadroxil

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefamandole

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefazolin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefazolin in D5W

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefazolin in Dextrose (Iso-os)

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefazolin in Normal Saline

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefazolin Sodium-Sterile Water

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefdinir

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefditoren Pivoxil

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefepime

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefixime

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefonicid

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefoperazone

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefotaxime

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefotaxime in D5W

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefotetan

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefotetan in Dextrose

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefotetan in Dextrose, Iso-osm

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefoxitin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefoxitin in 2.2% Dextrose

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefoxitin in 3.9% Dextrose

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefoxitin in Dextrose, Iso-osm

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefpodoxime

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefprozil

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Ceftaroline Fosamil

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Ceftazidime

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Ceftazidime-Dextrose (Iso-osm)

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Ceftibuten

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Ceftizoxime

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Ceftriaxone

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Ceftriaxone-Dextrose (Iso-osm)

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cefuroxime

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cephalexin HCl

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cephalothin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cephapirin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Chloramphenicol

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Ciprofloxacin

    Minerals such as aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc can bind to ciprofloxacin, greatly reducing the absorption of the drug. Because of the mineral content, people are advised to take ciprofloxacin two hours after consuming dairy products (milk, cheese, yogurt, ice cream, and others), antacids (Maalox®, Mylanta®, Tums®, Rolaids®, and others), and mineral-containing supplements.

  • Ciprofloxacin in D5W

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Clarithromycin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Clindamycin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Clindamycin HCl

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Clindamycin in D5W

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Clindamycin Palmitate

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cloxacillin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Colistimethate Sodium

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Cycloserine

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Dapsone

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Daptomycin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Demeclocycline

    Taking mineral supplements or antacids that contain aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as tetracyclines inhibits the absorption of the drug. Therefore, individuals should take tetracyclines at least two hours before or after products containing minerals.

  • Dicloxacillin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Dirithromycin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Doripenem

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Doxycycline

    Many minerals can decrease the absorption and reduce effectiveness of doxycycline, including calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and others. To avoid these interactions, doxycycline should be taken two hours before or two hours after dairy products (high in calcium) and mineral-containing antacids or supplements.

  • Ertapenem

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Erythromycin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Erythromycin Lactobionate

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Erythromycin Stearate

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Erythromycin-Sulfisoxazole

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Ethambutol

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Ethionamide

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Fidaxomicin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Gatifloxacin

    Minerals including calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc can bind to fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, greatly reducing drug absorption. Ofloxacin should be taken four hours before or two hours after consuming antacids (Maalox®, Mylanta®, Tumms®, Rolaids® and others) that may contain these minerals and mineral-containing supplements.

  • Gatifloxacin in D5W

    Minerals including calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc can bind to fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, greatly reducing drug absorption. Ofloxacin should be taken four hours before or two hours after consuming antacids (Maalox®, Mylanta®, Tumms®, Rolaids® and others) that may contain these minerals and mineral-containing supplements.

  • Gemifloxacin

    Minerals including calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc can bind to fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, greatly reducing drug absorption. Ofloxacin should be taken four hours before or two hours after consuming antacids (Maalox®, Mylanta®, Tumms®, Rolaids® and others) that may contain these minerals and mineral-containing supplements.

  • Gentamicin (Pediatric)

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Gentamicin in Normal Saline

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Gentamicin in Saline (Iso-osm)

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Gentamicin Sulfate (Ped-PF)

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Imipenem-Cilastatin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Isoniazid

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Isoniazid-Rifampin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Isoniazid-Rifamp-Pyrazinamide

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Levofloxacin

    Minerals including calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc can bind to fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, greatly reducing drug absorption. Ofloxacin should be taken four hours before or two hours after consuming antacids (Maalox®, Mylanta®, Tumms®, Rolaids® and others) that may contain these minerals and mineral-containing supplements.

  • Levofloxacin in D5W

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Lincomycin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Linezolid

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Meropenem

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Mezlocillin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Minocycline

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Moxifloxacin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Moxifloxacin in Saline

    Minerals including calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc can bind to fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, greatly reducing drug absorption. Ofloxacin should be taken four hours before or two hours after consuming antacids (Maalox®, Mylanta®, Tumms®, Rolaids® and others) that may contain these minerals and mineral-containing supplements.

  • Nafcillin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Nafcillin in D2.4W

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Netilmicin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Norfloxacin

    Minerals including calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc can bind to fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, greatly reducing drug absorption. Ofloxacin should be taken four hours before or two hours after consuming antacids (Maalox®, Mylanta®, Tumms®, Rolaids® and others) that may contain these minerals and mineral-containing supplements.

  • Ofloxacin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Oxacillin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Oxacillin in Dextrose

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Oxytetracycline

    Many minerals can decrease the absorption of tetracycline, thus reducing its effectiveness. These minerals include aluminum (in antacids), calcium (in antacids, dairy products, and supplements), magnesium (in antacids and supplements), iron (in food and supplements), zinc (in food and supplements), and others.

  • Penicillamine

    People taking penicillamine should discuss with their doctor whether it would be appropriate to take a zinc supplement (at a separate time of day from the penicillamine). However, people taking penicillamine should not supplement with zinc, unless they are being supervised by a doctor.

  • Penicillin G

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Penicillin G Benzathine

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Penicillin G Benzathine & Proc

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Penicillin G Pot in Dextrose

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Penicillin G Potassium

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Penicillin G Procaine

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Penicillin V

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Piperacillin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Piperacillin-Tazobactam

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Piperacillin-Tazobactam-Dextrs

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Pyrazinamide

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Quinupristin-Dalfopristin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Rifabutin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Rifampin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Rifapentine

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Rifaximin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Risedronate

    Taking risedronate at the same time as iron, zinc, or magnesium may reduce the amount of drug absorbed. Therefore, people taking risedronate who wish to supplement with these minerals should take them an hour before or two hours after the drug.

  • Streptomycin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Sulfadiazine

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Sulfamethoxazole

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Sulfisoxazole

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Tedizolid

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Telavancin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Telithromycin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Tetracycline

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Thalidomide

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Ticarcillin-Clavulanate

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Tigecycline

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Tobramycin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Tobramycin Sulfate

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Trimethoprim

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Trimethoprim/ Sulfamethoxazole

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Troleandomycin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Vancomycin

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Vancomycin in Dextrose

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Warfarin

    Iron , magnesium, and zinc may bind with warfarin, potentially decreasing their absorption and activity. People on warfarin therapy should take warfarin and iron/magnesium/zinc-containing products at least two hours apart.

  • Zoledronic Acid-Mannitol&Water

    Taking risedronate at the same time as iron, zinc, or magnesium may reduce the amount of drug absorbed. Therefore, people taking risedronate who wish to supplement with these minerals should take them an hour before or two hours after the drug.

Potential Negative Interaction

  • Conjugated Estrogens

    In a group of 37 postmenopausal women treated with conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone for 12 months, urinary zinc and magnesium loss was reduced in those women who began the study with signs of osteoporosis and elevated zinc and magnesium excretion. The clinical significance of this interaction remains unclear.

  • Esterified Estrogens

    In a group of 37 postmenopausal women treated with conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone for 12 months, urinary zinc and magnesium loss was reduced in those women who began the study with signs of osteoporosis and elevated zinc and magnesium excretion. The clinical significance of this interaction remains unclear.

  • Estradiol

    In a group of 37 postmenopausal women treated with conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone for 12 months, urinary zinc and magnesium loss was reduced in those women who began the study with signs of osteoporosis and elevated zinc and magnesium excretion. The clinical significance of this interaction remains unclear.

  • Estradiol Acetate

    In a group of 37 postmenopausal women treated with conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone for 12 months, urinary zinc and magnesium loss was reduced in those women who began the study with signs of osteoporosis and elevated zinc and magnesium excretion. The clinical significance of this interaction remains unclear.

  • Estradiol Cypionate

    In a group of 37 postmenopausal women treated with conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone for 12 months, urinary zinc and magnesium loss was reduced in those women who began the study with signs of osteoporosis and elevated zinc and magnesium excretion. The clinical significance of this interaction remains unclear.

  • Estradiol Valerate

    In a group of 37 postmenopausal women treated with conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone for 12 months, urinary zinc and magnesium loss was reduced in those women who began the study with signs of osteoporosis and elevated zinc and magnesium excretion. The clinical significance of this interaction remains unclear.

  • Estradiol-Drospirenone

    In a group of 37 postmenopausal women treated with conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone for 12 months, urinary zinc and magnesium loss was reduced in those women who began the study with signs of osteoporosis and elevated zinc and magnesium excretion. The clinical significance of this interaction remains unclear.

  • Estropipate

    In a group of 37 postmenopausal women treated with conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone for 12 months, urinary zinc and magnesium loss was reduced in those women who began the study with signs of osteoporosis and elevated zinc and magnesium excretion. The clinical significance of this interaction remains unclear.

  • Ethinyl Estradiol

    In a group of 37 postmenopausal women treated with conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone for 12 months, urinary zinc and magnesium loss was reduced in those women who began the study with signs of osteoporosis and elevated zinc and magnesium excretion. The clinical significance of this interaction remains unclear.

  • Methyltestosterone

    Taking methyltestosterone increased the amount of zinc in the blood and hair of boys with short stature or growth retardation. It is not known whether this increase would occur in other people or whether zinc supplementation by people taking methyltestosterone would result in zinc toxicity. Until more is known, zinc supplementation should be combined with methyltestosterone therapy only under the supervision of a doctor.

  • Synthetic Conj Estrogens A

    In a group of 37 postmenopausal women treated with conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone for 12 months, urinary zinc and magnesium loss was reduced in those women who began the study with signs of osteoporosis and elevated zinc and magnesium excretion. The clinical significance of this interaction remains unclear.

  • Synthetic Conj Estrogens B

    In a group of 37 postmenopausal women treated with conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone for 12 months, urinary zinc and magnesium loss was reduced in those women who began the study with signs of osteoporosis and elevated zinc and magnesium excretion. The clinical significance of this interaction remains unclear.

Explanation Required

  • Calcium Acetate

    People with renal failure or on hemodialysis often have low blood levels of zinc, which may produce symptoms such as abnormal taste or smell, reduced sexual functions, and poor immunity. One controlled study showed that taking zinc at the same time as calcium acetate reduces absorption of zinc. Therefore, people should avoid taking calcium acetate and zinc supplements together. Another controlled study revealed that neither short-term nor long-term treatment with calcium acetate results in reduced blood zinc levels. Thus, while calcium acetate reduces the amount of zinc absorbed from supplements, long-term treatment with the drug does not appear to affect overall zinc status. However, people with renal failure who experience symptoms of zinc deficiency might benefit from supplementing with zinc, regardless of whether or not they take calcium acetate.

  • Methylprednisolone

    Oral corticosteroids have been found to increase urinary loss of vitamin K, vitamin C, selenium, and zinc. The importance of these losses is unknown.

  • Prednisolone

    Oral corticosteroids have been found to increase urinary loss of vitamin K, vitamin C, selenium, and zinc. The importance of these losses is unknown.

  • Prednisone

    Oral corticosteroids have been found to increase urinary loss of vitamin K, vitamin C, selenium, and zinc. The importance of these losses is unknown.

The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers’ package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

Side Effects

Side Effects

Zinc intake in excess of 300 mg per day has been reported to impair immune function.17 Some people report that zinc lozenges lead to stomach ache, nausea, mouth irritation, and a bad taste. One source reports that gastrointestinal upset, metallic taste in the mouth, blood in the urine, and lethargy can occur from chronic oral zinc supplementation over 150 mg per day,18 but those claims are unsubstantiated. In topical form, zinc has no known side effects when used as recommended.

Caution: Using zinc nasal spray has been reported to cause severe or complete loss of smell function. In some of those cases, the loss of smell was long-lasting or permanent.19

Preliminary research had suggested that people with Alzheimer’s disease should avoid zinc supplements.20 More recently, preliminary evidence in four patients actually showed improved mental function with zinc supplementation.21 In a convincing review of zinc/Alzheimer’s disease research, perhaps the most respected zinc researcher in the world concluded that zinc does not cause or exacerbate Alzheimer’s disease symptoms.22

Zinc inhibits copper absorption. Copper deficiency can result in anemia, lower levels of HDL (“good”) cholesterol, neurological disorders, and cardiac arrhythmias.23 , 24 , 25 Copper intake should be increased if zinc supplementation continues for more than a few days (except for people with Wilson’s disease).26 Some sources recommend a 10:1 ratio of zinc to copper. Evidence suggests that no more that 2 mg of copper per day is needed to prevent zinc-induced copper deficiency. Many zinc supplements include copper in the formulation to prevent zinc-induced copper deficiency. Zinc-induced copper deficiency has been reported to cause reversible anemia and suppression of bone marrow.27 In addition, there are case reports of neurologic abnormalities due to copper deficiency occurring in people who had been using large amounts of certain widely available denture creams that contained high concentrations of zinc.28

In a study of elderly people with macular degeneration, supplementing with 80 mg of zinc per day for an average of about six years increased by about 50% the incidence of hospitalizations due to genitourinary causes (such as urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and urinary retention).29 In that study, copper was also given, but in a form that cannot be absorbed by humans (cupric oxide). The reported adverse effect of zinc may have been due in large part to zinc-induced copper deficiency, which could be prevented by taking copper in a form other than cupric oxide. Nevertheless, it would be prudent for elderly people wishing to take large amounts of zinc to consult with a doctor.

Marginal zinc deficiency may be a contributing factor in some cases of anemia. In a study of women with normocytic anemia (in other words, their red blood cells were of normal size) and low total iron-binding capacity (a blood test often used to assess the cause of anemia), combined iron and zinc supplementation significantly improved the anemia, whereas iron or zinc supplemented alone had only slight effects.30 Supplementation with zinc, or zinc and iron together, has been found to improve vitamin A status among children at high risk for deficiency of the three nutrients.31

References

1. Cherry FF, Sandstead HH, Rojas P, et al. Adolescent pregnancy: associations among body weight, zinc nutriture, and pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:945-54.

2. Goldenberg RL, Tamura T, Neggers Y, et al. The effect of zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcome. JAMA 1995;274:463-8.

3. Scholmerich J, Lohle E, Kottgen E, Gerok W. Zinc and vitamin A deficiency in liver cirrhosis. Hepatogastroenterology 1983;30:119-25.

4. Karayalcin S, Arcasoy A, Uzunalimoglu O. Zinc plasma levels after oral zinc tolerance test in nonalcoholic cirrhosis. Dig Dis Sci 1988;33:1096-102.

5. Stabile A, Pesaresi MA, Stabile AM, et al. Immunodeficiency and plasma zinc levels in children with Down's syndrome: a long-term follow-up of oral zinc supplementation. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1991;58:207-16.

6. Björksten B, Back O, Gustavson KH, et al. Zinc and immune function in Down's syndrome. Acta Paediatr Scand 1980;69:183-7.

7. Bucci I, Napolitano G, Giuliani C, et al. Zinc sulfate supplementation improves thyroid function in hypozincemic Down children. Biol Trace Elem Res 1999;67:257-68.

8. Wollowa F, Jablonska S. Zinc in the treatment of alopecia areata. In: Kobori Y, Montagna W (eds). Biology and Diseases of the Hair. Tokyo: University Park Press, 1976, 305.

9. Lutz G. The value of zinc in treatment of alopecia areata. 2nd Meeting of the European Hair Research Society, Bologna, April 14, 1991.

10. Prasad A. Discovery of human zinc deficiency and studies in an experimental human model. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:403-12 [review].

11. Gaby, AR. Nutritional Medicine. Concord, NH: Friz Perlberg Publishing, 2011.

12. Dawson EB, Albers J, McGanity WJ. Serum zinc changes due to iron supplementation in teen-age pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;50:848-52.

13. Crofton RW, Gvozdanovic D, Gvozdanovic S, et al. Inorganic zinc and the intestinal absorption of ferrous iron. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:141-4.

14. Argiratos V, Samman S. The effect of calcium carbonate and calcium citrate on the absorption of zinc in healthy female subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994;48:198-204.

15. Spencer H, Norris C, Williams D. Inhibitory effects of zinc on magnesium balance and magnesium absorption in man. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;13:479-84.

16. Brumas V, Hacht B, Filella M, Berthon G. Can N-acetyl-L-cysteine affect zinc metabolism when used as a paracetamol antidote? Agents Actions 1992;36:278-88.

17. Chandra RK. Excessive intake of zinc impairs immune responses. JAMA 1984;252:1443.

18. Shannon M. Alternative medicines toxicology: a review of selected agents. J Clin Toxicol 1999;37:709-13.

19. Jafek BW, Linschoten MR, Murrow BW. Anosmia after intranasal zinc gluconate use. Am J Rhinol 2004;18:137-41.

20. Bush AI, Pettingell WH, Multhaup G, et al. Rapid induction of Alzheimer A8 amyloid formation by zinc. Science 1994;265:1464-5.

21. Potocnik FCV, van Rensburg SJ, Park C, et al. Zinc and platelet membrane microviscosity in Alzheimer's disease. S Afr Med J 1997;87:1116-9.

22. Prasad AS. Zinc in human health: an update. J Trace Elem Exp Med 1998;11:63-87.

23. Broun ER. Greist A, Tricot G, Hoffman R. Excessive zinc ingestion. A reversible cause of sideroblastic anemia and bone marrow depression. JAMA 1990;264:1441-3.

24. Reiser S, Powell A, Yang CY, Canary JJ. Effect of copper intake on blood cholesterol and its lipoprotein distribution in men. Nutr Rep Int 1987;36:641-9.

25. Sandstead HH. Requirements and toxicity of essential trace elements, illustrated by zinc and copper. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61(suppl):621S-24S [review].

26. Fischer PWF, Giroux A, Labbe MR. Effect of zinc supplementation on copper status in adult man. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;40:743-6.

27. Broun ER. Greist A, Tricot G, Hoffman R. Excessive zinc ingestion. A reversible cause of sideroblastic anemia and bone marrow depression. JAMA 1990;264:1441-3.

28. Nations SP, Boyer PJ, Love LA, et al. Denture cream. An unusual source of excess zinc, leading to hypocupremia and neurologic disease. Neurology 2008;71:639-43.

29. Johnson AR, Munoz A, Gottlieb JL, Jarrard DF. High dose zinc increases hospital admissions due to genitourinary complications. J Urol 2007;177:639-43.

30. Nishiyama S, Irisa K, Matsubasa T, et al. Zinc status relates to hematological deficits in middle-aged women. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:291-5.

31. Muñoz EC, Rosado JL, Lopez P, et al. Iron and zinc supplementation improves indicators of vitamin A status of Mexican preschoolers. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:789-94.