Intermittent Claudication (Holistic)

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About This Condition

When taking a walk leaves you in pain, a hardening of the leg arteries may be the reason. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may be helpful.
  • Get some extra E

    Take 400 to 600 IU of vitamin E every day to improve blood flow and increase walking capacity

  • Try policosanol for your platelets

    Reduce platelet stickiness and improve walking capacity by taking 10 mg of this natural supplement twice a day

  • Trim the unhealthy fat

    Avoid foods high in meat fat, dairy fat, and trans fat that raise the risk of changes in the arteries that lead to intermittent claudication

About

About This Condition

Intermittent claudication is pain in the legs caused by atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) of the lower extremities.

Because atherosclerosis decreases the supply of blood and oxygen to the legs, people with intermittent claudication experience leg pain after walking a certain distance. People with this condition should be monitored by a doctor. The natural treatments for intermittent claudication include many of those used for atherosclerosis; these include controlling high cholesterol, modifying dietary and lifestyle factors that might influence atherosclerosis, and taking various nutritional supplements and herbs.

You should also learn more about atherosclerosis for more information about dietary changes that might favorably influence hardening of the arteries or the risk of heart disease associated with it. What follows is a discussion limited to those aspects of lifestyle and natural medicine that have been studied specifically in relation to intermittent claudication.

Symptoms

Initial symptoms of intermittent claudication are pain, aching, cramping, or fatigue of the muscles in the lower limbs that develop during walking and are quickly relieved by rest. Symptoms typically occur in the calf but may also be located in the foot, thigh, hip, or buttocks. In more advanced stages, the painful symptoms are present even at rest and are worsened by elevating the legs.

Healthy Lifestyle Tips

Smoking is directly linked to intermittent claudication.1 , 2 People who have intermittent claudication or wish to prevent it should not smoke.

Although exercise may be helpful in the treatment of intermittent claudication, it is important for all people with this condition to consult a healthcare practitioner before beginning an exercise program.3 , 4

Eating Right

The right diet is the key to managing many diseases and to improving general quality of life. For this condition, scientific research has found benefit in the following healthy eating tips.

Recommendation Why
Eat healthy fats
Choose low-fat protein and dairy over foods high in meat fat, dairy fat, and trans fat that raise the risk of changes in the arteries that lead to intermittent claudication.

Important dietary changes for preventing atherosclerosis (and, consequently, intermittent claudication) include avoiding meat and dairy fat, increasing fiber, and possibly avoiding foods containing trans fatty acids.

Supplements

What Are Star Ratings?
Supplement Why
3 Stars
Ginkgo
120 to 160 mg daily
Studies have reported that people with intermittent claudication see improvements in pain-free walking distance when supplementing with ginkgo.

Extensive studies have been done with Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBE) for treatment of intermittent claudication. Two double-blind trials found that 120 mg of GBE per day increased pain-free and total walking distance among people with intermittent claudication.Similar results were seen in another double-blind trial using 160 mg of GBE per day. In yet another double-blind trial, two doses of ginkgo extract were compared for six months. The researchers studied 60 vs. 120 mg twice daily and found that, while both amounts resulted in significant improvements in pain-free walking distance, the improvements were more pronounced at the higher dose. One double-blind study found that ginkgo extract was not beneficial. However, that study lasted only three months, whereas the positive studies lasted six months. It may take longer than three months for ginkgo to have a beneficial effect in people with intermittent claudication.

3 Stars
Inositol Hexaniacinate (Vitamin B3)
2 grams twice per day
Inositol hexaniacinate, a special form of vitamin B3, has been used successfully to reduce symptoms, this treatment should be monitored by a doctor.

Inositol hexaniacinate (IHN), a special form of vitamin B3, has been used successfully to treat intermittent claudication. The alleged advantage of IHN over niacin (another form of vitamin B3) is a lower risk of toxicity. A double-blind trial explored the effect of 2 grams of IHN taken twice per day for three months. In nonsmokers and in people with unchanged smoking habits, the increase in walking distance was significantly greater in the IHN group than in the placebo group. Other double-blind research has confirmed IHN's ability to improve symptoms of intermittent claudication compared with placebo. This treatment should be monitored by a doctor.

3 Stars
Policosanol
10 mg twice per day
Supplementing with policosanol may reduce platelet stickiness and improve walking capacity.

Policosanol , taken in the amount of 10 mg twice a day for at least six months, increases pain-free walking capacity by over 50% in people with intermittent claudication according to two double-blind trials. When policosanol was taken continuously for two years, walking capacity more than doubled. This effect may be related to the ability of policosanol to reduce the stickiness of platelets, which could result in improved circulation.

3 Stars
Propionyl-L-Carnitine
2 grams daily
In double-blind trials, supplementing with either L-carnitine or propionyl-L-carnitine (a form of L-carnitine) has increased walking distance in people with intermittent claudication.
In double-blind trials, supplementation with L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine (a form of L-carnitine) has increased walking distance in people with intermitting claudication. Walking distance was 75% greater after three weeks of L-carnitine supplementation (2 grams taken twice per day), than after supplementation with a placebo, a statistically significant difference. In the study using propionyl-L-carnitine, improvement occurred on in the those who could not walk 250 meters to begin with. In that group, maximum walking distance increase by 78% with propionyl-L-carnitine supplementation compared with a 44% increase in the placebo group, also a statistically significant difference. The amount of propionyl-L-carnitine used was 1 gram per day, increasing to 2 grams per day after two months, and 3 grams per day after an additional two months, if needed. The results of this trial have been confirmed in a large European trial.
3 Stars
Vitamin E
400 to 600 IU daily
Taking vitamin E may improve blood flow and increase walking capacity.

Vitamin E supplementation has been shown in controlled trials to increase both walking distance and blood flow through arteries of the lower legs in people with intermittent claudication. Increasing dietary intake of vitamin E was also associated with better blood flow to the legs. Some early studies did not find vitamin E useful. Possibly this failure was due to the short duration of the studies, as one review article suggested that a minimum of four to six months of vitamin E supplementation may be necessary before significant improvement is seen. Most clinical trials of vitamin E and intermittent claudication used 400 to 600 IU per day, although one study used 2,400 IU per day.

2 Stars
Fish Oil, Vitamin B6, Folic Acid, Vitamin E, Oleic Acid, and Alpha-Linolenic Acid
200 mg of EPA and 130 mg of DHA daily, plus small amounts of vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin E, oleic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid
In one study, men with intermittent claudication who drank a milk product fortified with fish oil, vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin E, oleic acid, and alpha-linolenic acid could walk further without pain than those who drank regular milk.

Men with intermittent claudication consumed a fortified milk product or regular milk daily for one year. The fortified product provided daily 130 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and 200 mg of docosahexaenoic acid (EPA and DHA, two fatty acids in fish oil), small amounts of supplemental vitamin E, folic acid, and vitamin B6, and additional amounts of oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. Compared with regular milk, the fortified milk product significantly increased the distance the participants could walk before the onset of pain.

2 Stars
Garlic
400 mg of a standardized extract twice per day
In one study, people given a garlic powder extract could walk a significantly greater distance than those given a placebo.

A standardized extract of garlic has been tested as a treatment for intermittent claudication. In a double-blind trial, the increase in walking distance was significantly greater in people receiving garlic powder extract (400 mg twice per day for 12 weeks) than in those given a placebo.

2 Stars
L-Carnitine
2 grams a day of proprionyl-L-carnitine
In double-blind trials, supplementation with either L-carnitine or propionyl-L-carnitine (a form of L-carnitine) has increased walking distance in people with intermittent claudication.

In double-blind trials, supplementation with either L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine (a form of L-carnitine) has increased walking distance in people with intermittent claudication. Walking distance was 75% greater after three weeks of L-carnitine supplementation (2 grams taken twice per day), than after supplementation with a placebo, a statistically significant difference. In the study using propionyl-L-carnitine, improvement occurred only in those who could not walk 250 meters to begin with. In that group, maximum walking distance increased by 78% with propionyl-L-carnitine supplementation compared with a 44% increase in the placebo group, also a statistically significant difference. The amount of propionyl-L-carnitine used was 1 gram per day, increasing to 2 grams per day after two months, and 3 grams per day after an additional two months, if needed. The results of this trial have been confirmed in a large European trial.

2 Stars
Padma 28
760 mg twice per day
In one trial, people with intermittent claudication who took the Tibetan herbal formula Padma 28 increased their walking distance by an average of 115%.

In a double-blind trial, people with intermittent claudication received 760 mg twice daily of the Tibetan herbal formula Padma 28® or a placebo for 16 weeks. The average walking distance increased by 115% among people receiving Padma 28, compared with a 17% increase in the placebo group (a statistically significant difference). No side effects were reported. Padma 28 was also found to increase walking distance in a second study.

1 Star
Evening Primrose Oil
Refer to label instructions
In a preliminary trial, supplementing with evening primrose oil led to a 10% increase in exercise tolerance in people with intermittent claudication.

Caution: One study showed a slightly increased risk of vascular surgery among people with intermittent claudication who took beta-carotene supplements. Until more is known, people with intermittent claudication wishing to use beta-carotene supplements should first consult with their doctor.

1 Star
Magnesium
Refer to label instructions
Magnesium may increase blood flow by helping to dilate blood vessels. One trial found that taking magnesium may increase walking distance in people with intermittent claudication.

Magnesium may increase blood flow by helping to dilate blood vessels. A preliminary trial found that magnesium supplementation may increase walking distance in people with intermittent claudication. Many doctors suggest that people with atherosclerosis, including those with intermittent claudication, take approximately 250 to 400 mg of magnesium per day.

In a preliminary trial, supplementing with evening primrose oil (approximately 1,600 mg per day) led to a 10% increase in exercise tolerance in people with intermittent claudication.

References

1. Cahan MA, Montgomery P, Otis RB, et al. The effect of cigarette smoking status on six-minute walk distance in patients with intermittent claudication. Angiology 1999;50:537-46.

2. Gardner AW, Womack CJ, Montgomery PS, et al. Cigarette smoking shortens the duration of daily leisure time physical activity in patients with intermittent claudication. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 1999;19:43-51.

3. Walker RD, Nawaz S, Wilkinson CH, et al. <strong>I</strong>nfluence of upper- and lower-limb exercise training on cardiovascular function and walking distances in patients with intermittent claudication. J Vasc Surg 2000;31:662-9.

4. Gardner AW, Katzel LI, Sorkin JD, et al. Improved functional outcomes following exercise rehabilitation in patients with intermittent claudication. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000;55:M570-7.