Neomycin-Polymyxin-HC (Buf)

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Drug Information

Common brand names:

Cortisporin OphthalmicSuspension

Summary of Interactions with Vitamins, Herbs, & Foods

Types of interactions: Beneficial Adverse Check

Replenish Depleted Nutrients

  • Beta-Carotene

    Neomycin can decrease absorption or increase elimination of many nutrients, including calcium, carbohydrates, beta-carotene, fats, folic acid, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and vitamin K.1 , 2 Surgery preparation with oral neomycin is unlikely to lead to deficiencies. It makes sense for people taking neomycin for more than a few days to also take a multivitamin-mineral supplement.

  • Calcium

    Neomycin can decrease absorption or increase elimination of many nutrients, including calcium, carbohydrates, beta-carotene, fats, folic acid, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and vitamin K.5 , 6 Surgery preparation with oral neomycin is unlikely to lead to deficiencies. It makes sense for people taking neomycin for more than a few days to also take a multivitamin-mineral supplement.

  • Folic Acid

    Tetracycline can interfere with the activity of folic acid, potassium, and vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and vitamin K.9 This is generally not a problem when taking tetracycline for two weeks or less. People taking tetracycline for longer than two weeks should ask their doctor about vitamin and mineral supplementation. Taking 500 mg vitamin C simultaneously with tetracycline was shown to increase blood levels of tetracycline in one study.10 The importance of this interaction is unknown.

    Taking large amounts of niacinamide, a form of vitamin B3, can suppress inflammation in the body. According to numerous preliminary reports, niacinamide, given in combination with tetracycline or minocycline, may be effective against bullous pemphigoid, a benign, autoimmune blistering disease of the skin.11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 Preliminary evidence also suggests a similar beneficial interaction may exist between tetracycline and niacinamide in the treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis.18 , 19

  • Iron

    Neomycin can decrease absorption or increase elimination of many nutrients, including calcium, carbohydrates, beta-carotene, fats, folic acid, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and vitamin K.35 , 36 Surgery preparation with oral neomycin is unlikely to lead to deficiencies. It makes sense for people taking neomycin for more than a few days to also take a multivitamin-mineral supplement.

  • Magnesium

    Neomycin can decrease absorption or increase elimination of many nutrients, including calcium, carbohydrates, beta-carotene, fats, folic acid, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and vitamin K.39 , 40 Surgery preparation with oral neomycin is unlikely to lead to deficiencies. It makes sense for people taking neomycin for more than a few days to also take a multivitamin-mineral supplement.

  • Potassium

    Neomycin can decrease absorption or increase elimination of many nutrients, including calcium, carbohydrates, beta-carotene, fats, folic acid, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and vitamin K.43 , 44 Surgery preparation with oral neomycin is unlikely to lead to deficiencies. It makes sense for people taking neomycin for more than a few days to also take a multivitamin-mineral supplement.

  • Sodium

    Neomycin can decrease absorption or increase elimination of many nutrients, including calcium, carbohydrates, beta-carotene, fats, folic acid, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and vitamin K.47 , 48 Surgery preparation with oral neomycin is unlikely to lead to deficiencies. It makes sense for people taking neomycin for more than a few days to also take a multivitamin-mineral supplement.

  • Vitamin A

    Neomycin can decrease absorption or increase elimination of many nutrients, including calcium, carbohydrates, beta-carotene, fats, folic acid, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and vitamin K.51 , 52 Surgery preparation with oral neomycin is unlikely to lead to deficiencies. It makes sense for people taking neomycin for more than a few days to also take a multivitamin-mineral supplement.

  • Vitamin B12

    Neomycin can decrease absorption or increase elimination of many nutrients, including calcium, carbohydrates, beta-carotene, fats, folic acid, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and vitamin K.55 , 56 Surgery preparation with oral neomycin is unlikely to lead to deficiencies. It makes sense for people taking neomycin for more than a few days to also take a multivitamin-mineral supplement.

  • Vitamin B2

    Tetracycline can interfere with the activity of folic acid, potassium, and vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and vitamin K.59 This is generally not a problem when taking tetracycline for two weeks or less. People taking tetracycline for longer than two weeks should ask their doctor about vitamin and mineral supplementation. Taking 500 mg vitamin C simultaneously with tetracycline was shown to increase blood levels of tetracycline in one study.60 The importance of this interaction is unknown.

  • Vitamin B6

    Neomycin can decrease absorption or increase elimination of many nutrients, including calcium, carbohydrates, beta-carotene, fats, folic acid, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and vitamin K.63 , 64 Surgery preparation with oral neomycin is unlikely to lead to deficiencies. It makes sense for people taking neomycin for more than a few days to also take a multivitamin-mineral supplement.

  • Vitamin D

    Neomycin can decrease absorption or increase elimination of many nutrients, including calcium, carbohydrates, beta-carotene, fats, folic acid, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and vitamin K.67 , 68 Surgery preparation with oral neomycin is unlikely to lead to deficiencies. It makes sense for people taking neomycin for more than a few days to also take a multivitamin-mineral supplement.

  • Vitamin K

    Several cases of excessive bleeding have been reported in people who take antibiotics.71 , 72 , 73 , 74 This side effect may be the result of reduced vitamin K activity and/or reduced vitamin K production by bacteria in the colon. One study showed that people who had taken broad-spectrum antibiotics had lower liver concentrations of vitamin K2 (menaquinone), though vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) levels remained normal.75 Several antibiotics appear to exert a strong effect on vitamin K activity, while others may not have any effect. Therefore, one should refer to a specific antibiotic for information on whether it interacts with vitamin K. Doctors of natural medicine sometimes recommend vitamin K supplementation to people taking antibiotics. Additional research is needed to determine whether the amount of vitamin K1 found in some multivitamins is sufficient to prevent antibiotic-induced bleeding. Moreover, most multivitamins do not contain vitamin K.

  • Chromium

    Preliminary data suggest that corticosteroid treatment increases chromium loss.95 Double-blind trials are needed to confirm these observations.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

Reduce Side Effects

  • Calcium and Vitamin D

    Oral corticosteroids reduce absorption of calcium101 and interfere with the activation and metabolism of the vitamin,102 , 103 , 104 , 105 increasing the risk of bone loss. Doctors can measure levels of activated vitamin D (called 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol) to determine whether a deficiency exists; if so, activated vitamin D is only available by prescription. A study of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with low amounts of prednisone found that those who received 1,000 mg of calcium per day plus 500 IU of vitamin D per day for two years experienced no bone loss during that time period.106 An analysis of properly conducted trials concluded that supplementation with vitamin D and calcium was more effective than placebo or calcium alone in protecting against corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis.107 Most doctors recommend 1,000 mg of calcium and 400–800 IU vitamin D per day for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  • Chromium

    Preliminary data suggest that supplementation with chromium (600 mcg per day in the form of chromium picolinate) may prevent corticosteroid-induced diabetes.115 Double-blind trials are needed to confirm these observations.

  • Probiotics

    A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea, which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms—such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii—helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.117

    The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast—such as Saccharomyces boulardii 118 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s or brewer’s yeast)119—helps prevent recurrence of this infection.

    Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina (candida vaginitis) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as “dysbiosis”). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.120

  • Vitamin C

    Tooth discoloration is a side effect of minocycline observed primarily in young children, but it may occur in adults as well. Vitamin C supplementation may prevent staining in adults taking minocycline.133

  • Brewer’s Yeast

    A common side effect of antibiotics is diarrhea, which may be caused by the elimination of beneficial bacteria normally found in the colon. Controlled studies have shown that taking probiotic microorganisms—such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, or Saccharomyces boulardii—helps prevent antibiotic-induced diarrhea.135

    The diarrhea experienced by some people who take antibiotics also might be due to an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which causes a disease known as pseudomembranous colitis. Controlled studies have shown that supplementation with harmless yeast—such as Saccharomyces boulardii 136 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s or brewer’s yeast)137—helps prevent recurrence of this infection. In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.138 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.

    Treatment with antibiotics also commonly leads to an overgrowth of yeast (Candida albicans) in the vagina (candida vaginitis) and the intestines (sometimes referred to as “dysbiosis”). Controlled studies have shown that Lactobacillus acidophilus might prevent candida vaginitis.139

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

Support Medicine

  • Bromelain

    When taken with amoxicillin, bromelain was shown to increase absorption of amoxicillin in humans.145 When 80 mg of bromelain was taken together with amoxicillin and tetracycline, blood levels of both drugs increased, though how bromelain acts on drug metabolism remains unknown.146 An older report found bromelain also increased the actions of other antibiotics, including penicillin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin, in treating a variety of infections. In that trial, 22 out of 23 people who had previously not responded to these antibiotics did so after adding bromelain taken four times per day.147

    Doctors will sometimes prescribe enough bromelain to equal 2,400 gelatin dissolving units (listed as GDU on labels) per day. This amount would equal approximately 3,600 MCU (milk clotting units), another common measure of bromelain activity.

  • Licorice

    When applied to the skin, glycyrrhetinic acid (a chemical found in licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)) increases the activity of hydrocortisone.151 This effect might allow for less hydrocortisone to be used when combined with glycyrrhetinic acid, but further study is needed to test this possibility.152

  • Probiotics
    In one study, taking 500 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii twice daily enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic vancomycin in preventing recurrent clostridium infection.155 Therefore, people taking antibiotics who later develop diarrhea might benefit from supplementing with saccharomyces organisms.
  • Zinc and Biotin

    Children with alopecia areata who supplemented 100 mg of zinc and 20 mg biotin each day, combined with topical clobetasol, showed more improvement compared to children who took oral corticosteroid drugs.159 Controlled research is needed to determine whether adding oral zinc and biotin to topical clobetasol therapy is more effective than clobetasol alone. However, until more information is available, caregivers should consider that children with alopecia who are currently taking oral corticosteroids might benefit from switching to supplements of zinc and biotin along with topical clobetasol.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.

Reduces Effectiveness

  • Khat

    Khat (Catha edulis) is an herb found in East Africa and Yemen that has recently been imported into the United States. Studies have shown that chewing khat significantly reduces the absorption of ampicillin,161 which might reduce the effectiveness of the antibiotic. Therefore, people taking ampicillin should avoid herbal products that contain khat.

  • Magnesium

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug163 , 164 and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

  • Zinc

    Taking calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc at the same time as minocycline can decrease the absorption of both the drug167 , 168 and the mineral. Therefore, calcium, iron, magnesium, or zinc supplements, if used, should be taken an hour before or after the drug.

Potential Negative Interaction

  • none

Explanation Required 

  • Barberry

    Berberine is a chemical extracted from goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), barberry (Berberis vulgaris), and Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium), which has antibacterial activity. However, one double-blind study found that 100 mg berberine given with tetracycline (a drug closely related to doxycycline) reduced the efficacy of tetracycline in people with cholera.171 In that trial, berberine may have decreased tetracycline absorption. Another double-blind trial found that berberine neither improved nor interfered with tetracycline effectiveness in cholera patients.172 Therefore, it remains unclear whether a significant interaction between berberine-containing herbs and doxycycline and related drugs exists.

  • Licorice

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) extract was shown to decrease the elimination of prednisone in test tube studies.175 If this action happens in people, it might prolong prednisone activity and possibly increase prednisone-related side effects. A small, controlled study found that intravenous (iv) glycyrrhizin (an active constituent in licorice) given with iv prednisolone prolonged prednisolone action in healthy men.176 Whether this effect would occur with oral corticosteroids and licorice supplements is unknown.

    An animal study has shown that glycyrrhizin prevents the immune-suppressing actions of cortisone—the natural corticosteroid hormone produced by the body.177 More research is necessary to determine if this action is significant in humans taking oral corticosteroids. Until more is known, people should not take licorice with corticosteroids without first consulting a doctor.

  • Aloe

    In animal research, applying aloe (Aloe vera) gel topically along with a topical corticosteroid enhanced the hormone’s anti-inflammatory activity in the skin.181 No human research has investigated this effect.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Magnesium

    Corticosteroids may increase the body’s loss of magnesium.183 Some doctors recommend that people taking corticosteroids for more than two weeks supplement with 300–400 mg of magnesium per day. Magnesium has also been reported to interfere with the absorption of dexamethasone.184

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
  • Vitamin K

    Neomycin can decrease absorption or increase elimination of many nutrients, including calcium, carbohydrates, beta-carotene, fats, folic acid, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and vitamin K.187 , 188 Surgery preparation with oral neomycin is unlikely to lead to deficiencies. It makes sense for people taking neomycin for more than a few days to also take a multivitamin-mineral supplement.

    The interaction is supported by preliminary, weak, fragmentary, and/or contradictory scientific evidence.
The Drug-Nutrient Interactions table may not include every possible interaction. Taking medicines with meals, on an empty stomach, or with alcohol may influence their effects. For details, refer to the manufacturers’ package information as these are not covered in this table. If you take medications, always discuss the potential risks and benefits of adding a new supplement with your doctor or pharmacist.

References

1. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

2. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

3. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

4. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

5. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

6. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

7. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

8. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

9. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 256-8.

10. Freinberg N, Lite T. Adjunctive ascorbic acid administration in antibiotic therapy. J Dent Res 1957;36:260-2.

11. Yomoda M, Komai A, Hasimoto T. Sublamina densa-type linear IgA bullous dermatosis successfully treated with oral tetracycline and niacinamide. Br J Dermatol 1999;141:608-9.

12. Dragan L, Eng AM, Lam S, Persson T. Tetracycline and niacinamide: treatment alternatives in ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. Cutis 1999;63:181-3.

13. Berk MA, Lorincz AL. The treatment of bullous pemphigoid with tetracycline and niacinamide. A preliminary report. Arch Dermatol 1986;122:670-4.

14. Kawahara Y, Hashimoto T, Ohata K, Nishikawa T. Eleven cases of bullous pemphigoid treated with combination of minocycline and nicotinamide. Eur J Dermatol 1996;6:427-9.

15. Reiche L, Wojnarowska F, Mallon E. Combination therapy with nicotinamide and tetracyclines for cicatricial pemphigoid; further support for its efficacy. Clin Exp Dermatol 1998;23:254-7.

16. Peoples D, Fivenson DP. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis: successful treatment with tetracycline and nicotinamide. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;26:498-9.

17. Chaffins ML, Collison D, Fivenson DP. Treatment of pemphigus and linear IgA dermatosis with nicotinamide and tetracycline: a review of 13 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993;28:998-1000.

18. Shah SA, Ormerod AD. Dermatitis herpetiformis effectively treated with heparin, tetracycline and nicotinamide. Clin Exp Dermatol 2000;25:204-5.

19. Zemtsov A, Neldner KH. Successful treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis with tetracycline and nicotinamide in a patient unable to tolerate dapsone. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993;28:505-6.

20. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

21. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

22. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 256-8.

23. Freinberg N, Lite T. Adjunctive ascorbic acid administration in antibiotic therapy. J Dent Res 1957;36:260-2.

24. Yomoda M, Komai A, Hasimoto T. Sublamina densa-type linear IgA bullous dermatosis successfully treated with oral tetracycline and niacinamide. Br J Dermatol 1999;141:608-9.

25. Dragan L, Eng AM, Lam S, Persson T. Tetracycline and niacinamide: treatment alternatives in ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. Cutis 1999;63:181-3.

26. Berk MA, Lorincz AL. The treatment of bullous pemphigoid with tetracycline and niacinamide. A preliminary report. Arch Dermatol 1986;122:670-4.

27. Kawahara Y, Hashimoto T, Ohata K, Nishikawa T. Eleven cases of bullous pemphigoid treated with combination of minocycline and nicotinamide. Eur J Dermatol 1996;6:427-9.

28. Reiche L, Wojnarowska F, Mallon E. Combination therapy with nicotinamide and tetracyclines for cicatricial pemphigoid; further support for its efficacy. Clin Exp Dermatol 1998;23:254-7.

29. Peoples D, Fivenson DP. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis: successful treatment with tetracycline and nicotinamide. J Am Acad Dermatol 1992;26:498-9.

30. Chaffins ML, Collison D, Fivenson DP. Treatment of pemphigus and linear IgA dermatosis with nicotinamide and tetracycline: a review of 13 cases. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993;28:998-1000.

31. Shah SA, Ormerod AD. Dermatitis herpetiformis effectively treated with heparin, tetracycline and nicotinamide. Clin Exp Dermatol 2000;25:204-5.

32. Zemtsov A, Neldner KH. Successful treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis with tetracycline and nicotinamide in a patient unable to tolerate dapsone. J Am Acad Dermatol 1993;28:505-6.

33. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

34. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

35. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

36. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

37. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

38. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

39. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

40. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

41. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

42. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

43. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

44. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

45. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

46. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

47. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

48. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

49. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

50. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

51. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

52. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

53. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

54. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

55. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

56. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

57. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

58. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

59. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 256-8.

60. Freinberg N, Lite T. Adjunctive ascorbic acid administration in antibiotic therapy. J Dent Res 1957;36:260-2.

61. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 256-8.

62. Freinberg N, Lite T. Adjunctive ascorbic acid administration in antibiotic therapy. J Dent Res 1957;36:260-2.

63. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

64. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

65. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

66. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

67. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

68. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

69. Roe DA. Drug-Induced Nutritional Deficiencies, 2d ed. Westport, CT: Avi Publishing, 1985, 157-8 [review].

70. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press,1998, 183.

71. Suzuki K, Fukushima T, Meguro K, et al. Intracranial hemorrhage in an infant owing to vitamin K deficiency despite prophylaxis. Childs Nerv Syst 1999;15:292-4.

72. Huilgol VR, Markus SL, Vakil NB. Antibiotic-induced iatrogenic hemobilia. Am J Gastroenterol 1997;92:706-7.

73. Bandrowsky T, Vorono AA, Borris TJ, Marcantoni HW. Amoxicllin-related postextraction bleeding in an anticoagulated patient with tranexamic acid rinses. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1996;82:610-2.

74. Kaiser CW, McAuliffe JD, Barth RJ, Lynch JA. Hypoprothrombinemia and hemorrhage in a surgical patient treated with cefotetan. Arch Surg 1991;126:524-5.

75. Conly J, Stein K. Reduction of vitamin K2 concentration in human liver associated with the use of broad spectrum antimicrobials. Clin Invest Med 1994;17:531-9.

76. Suzuki K, Fukushima T, Meguro K, et al. Intracranial hemorrhage in an infant owing to vitamin K deficiency despite prophylaxis. Childs Nerv Syst 1999;15:292-4.

77. Huilgol VR, Markus SL, Vakil NB. Antibiotic-induced iatrogenic hemobilia. Am J Gastroenterol 1997;92:706-7.

78. Bandrowsky T, Vorono AA, Borris TJ, Marcantoni HW. Amoxicllin-related postextraction bleeding in an anticoagulated patient with tranexamic acid rinses. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1996;82:610-2.

79. Kaiser CW, McAuliffe JD, Barth RJ, Lynch JA. Hypoprothrombinemia and hemorrhage in a surgical patient treated with cefotetan. Arch Surg 1991;126:524-5.

80. Conly J, Stein K. Reduction of vitamin K2 concentration in human liver associated with the use of broad spectrum antimicrobials. Clin Invest Med 1994;17:531-9.

81. Hahn TJ, Halstead LR, Baran DT. Effects off short term glucocorticoid administration on intestinal calcium absorption and circulating vitamin D metabolite concentrations in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1981;52:111-5.

82. Trovato A, Nuhlicek DN, Midtling JE. Drug-nutrient interactions. Am Family Phys 1991;44:1651-8.

83. Chesney RW, Mazess RB, Hamstra AJ, et al. Reduction of serum-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D, in children receiving glucocorticoids. Lancet 1978;ii:1123-5.

84. Nielsen HK, Eriksen EF, Storm T, Mosekilde K. The effects of short-term, high-dose prednisone on the nuclear uptake of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in monocytes from normal human subjects. Metabolism 1988;37:109-14.

85. Avioli LV. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in patients receiving chronic corticosteroid therapy. J Lab Clin Med 1977;23:399-404.

86. Buckley LM, Leib ES, Cartularo KS, et al. Calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation prevents bone loss in the spine secondary to low-dose corticosteroids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:961-8.

87. Amin S, LaValley PM, Simms RW, Felson DT. The role of vitamin D in corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Rheum 1999;42:1740-51.

88. Hahn TJ, Halstead LR, Baran DT. Effects off short term glucocorticoid administration on intestinal calcium absorption and circulating vitamin D metabolite concentrations in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1981;52:111-5.

89. Trovato A, Nuhlicek DN, Midtling JE. Drug-nutrient interactions. Am Family Phys 1991;44:1651-8.

90. Chesney RW, Mazess RB, Hamstra AJ, et al. Reduction of serum-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D, in children receiving glucocorticoids. Lancet 1978;ii:1123-5.

91. Nielsen HK, Eriksen EF, Storm T, Mosekilde K. The effects of short-term, high-dose prednisone on the nuclear uptake of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in monocytes from normal human subjects. Metabolism 1988;37:109-14.

92. Avioli LV. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in patients receiving chronic corticosteroid therapy. J Lab Clin Med 1977;23:399-404.

93. Buckley LM, Leib ES, Cartularo KS, et al. Calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation prevents bone loss in the spine secondary to low-dose corticosteroids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:961-8.

94. Amin S, LaValley PM, Simms RW, Felson DT. The role of vitamin D in corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Arthritis Rheum 1999;42:1740-51.

95. Ravina A, Slezak L, Mirsky N, et al. Reversal of corticosteroid-induced diabetes mellitus with supplemental chromium. Diabet Med 1999;16:164-7.

96. Ravina A, Slezak L, Mirsky N, et al. Reversal of corticosteroid-induced diabetes mellitus with supplemental chromium. Diabet Med 1999;16:164-7.

97. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 83.

98. Sur S, Camara M, Buchmeier A, et al. Double-blind trial of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) in the treatment of steroid-dependent asthma. Ann Allergy 1993;70:147-52.

99. Holt GA. Food & Drug Interactions. Chicago: Precept Press, 1998, 83.

100. Sur S, Camara M, Buchmeier A, et al. Double-blind trial of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) in the treatment of steroid-dependent asthma. Ann Allergy 1993;70:147-52.

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