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What is an oophorectomy?
Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of the ovaries, the part of a woman's reproductive system that stores and releases eggs for fertilization and produces female sex hormones.
Oophorectomy may be done alone or as part of a hysterectomy.
Oophorectomy is often needed when pelvic disease, such as ovarian cancer, is present. And it is sometimes recommended when the hormones produced by the ovaries are making a disease such as breast cancer or severe endometriosis worse.
In some cases the ovaries are removed to try to reduce the possibility of developing a future disease, such as ovarian cancer. This is called a prophylactic oophorectomy.
What are the reasons to have an oophorectomy?
Most hysterectomies do not include oophorectomy. Oophorectomy is done for conditions and diseases such as:
- Heredity (inherited) diseases. Women who have certain abnormal genes (known as BRCA1 and BRCA2) have an increased risk for developing ovarian cancer before age 70. If your mother or sister has had ovarian cancer, or you know that you have an abnormal BRCA gene, you may consider having your ovaries removed. You will not be able to become pregnant after having this surgery. And your risk for ovarian cancer will drop to nearly zero. Your breast cancer risk will also be lower. Talk to your doctor to decide if this choice is right for you.
- Breast cancer. Hormones produced by the ovaries increase the risk of breast cancer. Oophorectomy may reduce the risk of breast or ovarian cancer in women who have the abnormal genes BRCA1 or BRCA2. Oophorectomy is sometimes recommended to treat breast cancer, because it eliminates the hormones produced by the ovaries.
- Suspected disease. When a premenopausal woman is scheduled to have one ovary removed during the surgical removal of the uterus (hysterectomy) because disease is suspected, removal of both ovaries may be recommended if disease is found.
What are the reasons not to have an oophorectomy?
If you do not have an increased risk of ovarian cancer or another disease that requires the removal of your ovaries, consider the benefits of not having your ovaries removed. These benefits include:
- Not taking hormones. When an oophorectomy is done before a woman's natural age of menopause, hormones may be prescribed afterward to reduce the risk of osteoporosis, hot flashes, and other menopausal symptoms. Ask your doctor about other problems that may be related to using hormone therapy.
- Fewer fractures. Removal of the ovaries increases the risk for developing weak and brittle bones (osteoporosis), because the body no longer produces a large amount of estrogen. The risk for osteoporosis following an oophorectomy is greater in young women.
- Long-term survival benefits. When comparing women who do and don't have their ovaries, experts estimate that women live longer when they keep their ovaries until at least age 65.
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Other Works Consulted
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2008, reaffirmed 2010). Elective and risk-reducing Salpingo-oophorectomy. ACOG Practice Bulletin No. 89. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 111(1): 231–241.
- Parker WH, et al. (2013). Long-term mortality associated with oophorectomy compared with ovarian conservation in the Nurses' Health Study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 121(4): 709–716. DOI: http://10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182864350. Accessed October 9, 2014.
Primary Medical Reviewer Sarah Marshall, MD - Family Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer Kirtly Jones, MD - Obstetrics and Gynecology
Current as ofFebruary 20, 2015