Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) occurs when the bacteria are resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin. This means that these medicines are unable to kill the bacteria. The reasons antibiotic resistance occurs include:
People who have resistant disease are at increased risk for dying of TB, especially if they also are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). People who are at highest risk for developing multidrug-resistant TB are those who:
To reduce the problem of drug resistance, doctors now use the following guidelines to treat all people who have resistant TB:1
A rare type of MDR-TB is called extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). This type of TB is resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, and several other medicines used to treat TB. And some TB bacteria have become resistant to all of the antibiotics commonly used to treat TB. This is sometimes called totally resistant tuberculosis (TDR-TB).2
- American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Infectious Diseases Society of America (2003). Treatment of tuberculosis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 167(4): 603–662.
- Cegielski P, et al. (2012). Challenges and controversies in defining totally drug-resistant tuberculosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases [Internet], November. Available online: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/11/12-0526_article.htm.
Primary Medical Reviewer E. Gregory Thompson, MD - Internal Medicine
Specialist Medical Reviewer R. Steven Tharratt, MD, MPVM, FACP, FCCP - Pulmonology, Critical Care Medicine, Medical Toxicology
Current as ofJune 4, 2014
Current as of: June 4, 2014
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