Be a positive role model by involving your entire family in a program that includes better eating and regular exercise
Research whole foods and help your children choose healthy long-term eating habits
Provide and encourage physically active alternatives to TV and video games
Improve the results of treating childhood obesity by learning valuable techniques that can help you alter your child’s behavior
Visit a doctor to determine if any treatable health problems are developing as a result of childhood obesity
Excessive weight in children and adolescents is becoming an increasingly serious problem.1 , 2 In the United States, 13% of children aged 6 to 11 years and 14% of adolescents aged 12 to 19 years are overweight, and among adolescents the percentage is three times higher than it was 20 years ago.3 Major contributors to childhood obesity include genetics, unhealthy diets, and sedentary lifestyles.4 , 5 Overweight children often become adults with weight problems that contribute to a wide variety of health problems,6 , 7 but even during childhood and adolescence, overweight can contribute to such disorders as type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, and liver disease.8 , 9 , 10 Being overweight also has social and psychological consequences for children in terms of social discrimination, poor self-esteem, and depression.11 , 12
Parents, family members, and others who are important people in a child’s life can either help or harm an obese child’s situation. As with all children, those with weight problems need acceptance, support, and encouragement from their family, and the eating, exercising, and other health habits of family members play important roles in influencing the same behaviors in children.13 , 14
The proper weight for a growing child or adolescent should be determined with the help of a doctor or other qualified health professional, who can also determine whether any unusual medical problems might be contributing to weight gain, whether any current health problems exist that are related to overweight, and appropriate weight control methods. Treating obesity should not include overly restrictive or fad diets that are missing essential nutrients. In fact, weight loss is not necessarily appropriate for a growing child. Often the best goal for an overweight child is to maintain their current weight as they grow taller.
Lack of physical activity is considered a significant contributing factor in childhood obesity.15 However, while the results of treatment of overweight children are usually enhanced by strategies to increase physical activity or decrease inactivity, attempts to improve physical activity levels have not been very successful in preventing childhood obesity according to most controlled research.16 Nonetheless, watching television and playing computer or video games contributes to the sedentary lifestyle of many children, and controlled research has shown that weight control is more successful when these activities are controlled and healthier alternatives provided.17 , 18 , 19 Children are recommended to get at least an hour of moderate physical activity most days of the week, and more may be necessary to offset genetic and other influences. Fun activities that involve other family members or other children will help make getting more exercise a positive experience.20
Weight-loss efforts that involve excessive restriction of calories or protein can inhibit a child’s ability to gain lean body mass (such as muscle) during the normal growth process. Consequently, weight-loss diets for children should not be excessively restrictive. In addition, an appropriate exercise program can be a useful addition to a low-calorie diet for overweight children. A controlled trial found that strength training, when added to a low-calorie diet, resulted in a greater gain of lean body mass (while still promoting weight loss), compared with diet alone in obese children.21 Another study of obese adolescents found that a physical exercise program combined with normal calorie intake resulted in reductions in body weight and body fat while allowing for normal growth and preservation of lean body mass.22
Behavior-change techniques are considered useful for helping people break old habits and form more healthful habits. These techniques may be learned from counseling professionals, support groups, educational programs, or books. Many controlled studies have investigated various methods for using behavior-change techniques to prevent or treat childhood obesity, with several reporting success at reducing overweight compared with either no treatment or with conventional weight-loss approaches.23 , 24 , 25
Parental involvement in the treatment of childhood obesity is considered important for success, especially when parents are given adequate training in a wide range of behavior-change techniques that can be applied to the entire family.26 Limited research suggests that training parents alone is superior to training either children alone or training both parents and children.27 , 28 , 29 Some authorities suggest that training parents alone produces the best results because this avoids affecting the child’s self-esteem and willingness to change, which might result from labeling him or her as “the patient.”30 , 31
Problem-solving techniques are used in some types of counseling to help people maintain changes in their behavior. In one controlled study, teaching problem-solving techniques to parents in addition to behavior-change techniques improved weight loss results in obese children compared with a group learning only behavior-change techniques.32 However, another controlled study found no additional benefit when problem-solving training was given to either the child or to both child and parent.33
For support and information, parents can also try the following resources:
|Eat a heart-healthy diet||
Most authorities believe that the best diet for treating childhood obesity is a heart-healthy diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, but high in vitamins, minerals, and other important nutrients.
Most authorities believe that the best diet for treating childhood obesity is a heart-healthy diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, but high in vitamins, minerals, and other important nutrients. 34 However, few studies have actually compared different diets for their effectiveness in treating childhood obesity.
|Find a diet that fits||
Research whole foods and help your children choose healthy long-term eating habits.
Unhealthful eating patterns resulting in overconsumption of foods high in fat, calories, or added sugars are considered a major contributor to childhood obesity.35 Since these patterns often include habits learned from the family, attention should be paid to providing healthful food to the entire family and encouraging good role modeling by other family members.36
Guiding healthful food choices when eating outside of the home is also a priority. To teach good lifetime eating habits, try the following:37
There is only limited research on the prevention of childhood obesity with diet. Preliminary studies have found that breast-feeding during infancy is usually associated with a reduced risk of developing obesity during early childhood, though the reasons for this effect are unclear.38 , 39 , 40 In a controlled study of children between the ages of 7 and 12, a school-based education program designed to reduce carbonated-drink consumption resulted in a reduction in the number of overweight children after 12 months.41
A study found that overweight adolescents lost more weight with a low-carbohydrate diet than with a low-fat diet, however, more research is needed to validate this finding.
A recent 12-week controlled trial found that overweight adolescents lost more weight with a low-carbohydrate diet than with a low-fat diet.42 Very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets have been shown to cause rapid weight loss in very obese children in short-term preliminary and controlled trials,43 , 44 but the long-term safety and benefits of this type of diet are unknown. More research is needed to evaluate low-carbohydrate diets for treating childhood obesity.
|Keep an eye on the GI||
Glycemic index and glycemic load measure how much foods raise blood sugar. Kids eating a low-glycemic-load diet have been shown to lose more weight than kids on a typical low-calorie, low-fat diet.
Glycemic index and glycemic load describe the tendency of foods to raise blood sugar. Eating meals containing foods that are low in glycemic index or glycemic load may influence appetite and other body mechanisms that affect excessive weight gain in children.45 , 46 A preliminary study reported that obese children using a low-glycemic-index diet lost more weight compared with a similar group using a low-fat diet.47 A controlled trial found that obese adolescents eating freely on a low-glycemic-load diet lost more weight and body fat after six months than did a similar group following a typical low-calorie, low-fat diet.48
|No need to fast||
Very-low-calorie “modified fasting” diets have helped kids lose weight in the short-term, but the weight often returns and health risks are associated with the use of these diets.
Very-low-calorie “modified fasting” diets, typically using high-protein meal replacement beverages, have been tried in preliminary and controlled studies of obese children with good short-term results.49 , 50 However, weight lost with these diets is often regained and there are health risks associated with their use.51 Little is known about their effect on growth and other health issues in children.
Our proprietary “Star-Rating” system was developed to help you easily understand the amount of scientific support behind each supplement in relation to a specific health condition. While there is no way to predict whether a vitamin, mineral, or herb will successfully treat or prevent associated health conditions, our unique ratings tell you how well these supplements are understood by some in the medical community, and whether studies have found them to be effective for other people.
For over a decade, our team has combed through thousands of research articles published in reputable journals. To help you make educated decisions, and to better understand controversial or confusing supplements, our medical experts have digested the science into these three easy-to-follow ratings. We hope this provides you with a helpful resource to make informed decisions towards your health and well-being.
3 Stars Reliable and relatively consistent scientific data showing a substantial health benefit.
2 Stars Contradictory, insufficient, or preliminary studies suggesting a health benefit or minimal health benefit.
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2 to 3 grams daily
Glucomannan, a type of fiber, dilutes calories, slows down the eating process, and may make people feel more full despite eating fewer calories.
Increased fiber intake is thought to have potential benefit in a weight-loss program since dietary fiber dilutes calories, slows down the eating process, and may make people feel more full despite eating fewer calories.52 However, research on using fiber in the treatment of childhood obesity has focused on using fiber supplements rather than comparing low- and high-fiber diets. Supplementation for four months with 2 to 3 grams per day of a bulking agent called glucomannan, was effective in a group of obese adolescents in one controlled trial,53 but another controlled trial found no significant effect of 2 grams per day for two months.54
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30. Golan M, Fainaru M, Weizman A. Role of behaviour modification in the treatment of childhood obesity with the parents as the exclusive agents of change. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998;22:1217-24.
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36. Golan M, Crow S. Parents are key players in the prevention and treatment of weight-related problems. Nutr Rev 2004;62:39-50 [review].
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43. Willi SM, Oexmann MJ, Wright NM, et al. The effects of a high-protein, low-fat, ketogenic diet on adolescents with morbid obesity: body composition, blood chemistries, and sleep abnormalities. Pediatrics 1998;101:61-7.
44. Pena L, Pena M, Gonzalez J, Claro A. A comparative study of two diets in the treatment of primary exogenous obesity in children. Acta Paediatr Acad Sci Hung 1979;20:99-103.
45. Ball SD, Keller KR, Moyer-Mileur LJ, et al. Prolongation of satiety after low versus moderately high glycemic index meals in obese adolescents. Pediatrics 2003;111:488-94.
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54. Vido L, Facchin P, Antonello I, et al. Childhood obesity treatment: double blinded trial on dietary fibres (glucomannan) versus placebo. Padiatr Padol 1993;28:133-6.
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