Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5, is a water-soluble vitamin involved in the Kreb’s cycle of energy production and is needed to make the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is also essential in producing, transporting, and releasing energy from fats. Synthesis of cholesterol (needed to manufacture vitamin D and steroid hormones) depends on pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid also activates the adrenal glands.1 Pantethine—a byproduct of pantothenic acid—has been reported to lower blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.
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300 mg pantethine taken two to four times per day
Pantethine, a byproduct of vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), may help reduce the amount of cholesterol made by the body.
Pantethine , a byproduct of vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), may help reduce the amount of cholesterol made by the body. Several preliminary and several controlled trials have found that pantethine (300 mg taken two to four times per day) significantly lowers serum cholesterol levels and may also increase HDL.2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10However, a double-blind trial in people whose high blood cholesterol did not change with diet and drug therapy, found that pantethine was also not effective.11 Common pantothenic acid has not been reported to have any effect on high blood cholesterol.
300 mg pantethine three times per day
Pantethine, a byproduct of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), has been shown to lower triglyceride levels in several clinical trials.
Pantethine is a byproduct of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). Several clinical trials have shown that 300 mg of pantethine taken three times per day will lower TG levels.12 , 13 , 14 Pantothenic acid, which is found in most B vitamins, does not have this effect.
2,000 mg daily
People with rheumatoid arthritis may be partially deficient in pantothenic acid. In one trial, taking pantothenic acid resulted in less morning stiffness, disability, and pain.
Research suggests that people with RA may be partially deficient in pantothenic acid (vitamin B5).15 In one placebo-controlled trial, those with RA had less morning stiffness, disability, and pain when they took 2,000 mg of pantothenic acid per day for two months.16
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In a preliminary trial, taking panthothenic acid supplements and applying a topical cream improved moderate acne in two months and severe acne within six months.
In a preliminary trial, people with acne were given 2.5 grams of pantothenic acid orally four times per day, for a total of 10 grams per day—a remarkably high amount.17 A cream containing 20% pantothenic acid was also applied topically four to six times per day. With moderate acne, near-complete relief was seen within two months, while severe conditions took at least six months to respond. Eventually, the intake of pantothenic acid was reduced to 1 to 5 grams per day—still a very high amount.
Most people do not need to supplement with pantothenic acid. However, the 10–25 mg found in many multivitamin supplements might improve pantothenic acid status. So-called primitive human diets provided greater amounts of this nutrient than is found in modern diets. Most cholesterol researchers using pantethine have given people 300 mg three times per day (total 900 mg).
Liver, yeast, and salmon have high concentrations of pantothenic acid, but most other foods, including vegetables, dairy, eggs, grains, and meat, also provide some pantothenic acid.
Pantothenic acid deficiencies may occur in people with alcoholism but are generally believed to be rare.
There is one report of a 76-year-old woman who developed a life-threatening condition (eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion) while taking 300 mg of pantothenic acid per day and 10 mg of biotin per day.18 However, it is not clear whether the vitamins caused the problem.
No serious side effects have been reported, even at intakes of up to 10,000 mg (10 grams) per day. Very large amounts of pantothenic acid (several grams per day) can cause diarrhea.
1. Fidanza A. Therapeutic action of pantothenic acid. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1983;suppl 24:53-67 [review].
2. Galeone F, Scalabrino A, Giuntoli F, et al. The lipid-lowering effect of pantethine in hyperlipidemic patients: a clinical investigation. Curr Ther Res 1983;34:383-90.
3. Miccoli R, Marchetti P, Sampietro T, et al. Effects of pantethine on lipids and apolipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic diabetic and non diabetic patients. Curr Ther Res 1984;36:545-9.
4. Avogaro P, Bon B, Fusello M. Effect of pantethine on lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in man. Curr Ther Res 1983;33;488-93.
5. Coronel F, Tornero F, Torrente J, et al. Treatment of hyperlipemia in diabetic patients on dialysis with a physiological substance. Am J Nephrol 1991;11:32-6.
6. Arsenio L, Bodria P, Magnati G, et al. Effectiveness of long-term treatment with pantethine in patients with dyslipidemia. Clin Ther 1986;8:537-45.
7. Prisco D, Rogasi PG, Matucci M, et al. Effect of oral treatment with pantethine on platelet and plasma phospholipids in IIa hyperlipoproteinemia. Angiology 1987;38:241-7.
8. Gaddi A, Descovich GC, Noseda G, et al. Controlled evaluation of pantethine, a natural hypolipidemic compound, in patients with different forms of hyperlipoproteinemia. Atherosclerosis 1984;50:73-83.
9. Rumberger JA, Napolitano J, Azumano I, et al. Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5 used as a nutritional supplement, favorably alters low-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism in low- to moderate-cardiovascular risk North American subjects: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation. Nutr Res 2011;31:608-15.
10. Evans M, Rumberger JA, Azumano I, et al. Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5, favorably alters total, LDL and non-HDL cholesterol in low to moderate cardiovascular risk subjects eligible for statin therapy: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2014;10:89–100.
11. Da Col PG, et al. Pantethine in the treatment of hyper-cholesterolemia: a randomized double-blind trial versus tiadenol. Curr Ther Res 1984;36:314.
12. Arsenio L, Bodria P, Magnati G, et al. Effectiveness of long-term treatment with pantethine in patients with dyslipidemia. Clin Ther 1986;8:537-45.
13. Avogaro P, Bon B, Fusello M. Effect of pantethine on lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in man. Curr Ther Res 1983;33;488-93.
14. Maggi GC, Donati C, Criscuoli G. Pantethine: a physiological lipomodulating agent, in the treatment of hyperlipidemias. Curr Ther Res 1982;32:380-6.
15. Barton-Wright EC, Elliott WA. The pantothenic acid metabolism of rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 1963;ii:862-3.
16. General Practitioner Research Group. Calcium pantothenate in arthritic conditions. Practitioner 1980;224:208-11.
17. Leung LH. Pantothenic acid deficiency as the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Med Hypotheses 1995;44:490-2.
18. Debourdeau PM, Djezzar S, Estival JL, et al. Life-threatening eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion related to vitamins B5 and H. Ann Pharmacother 2001;35:424-6.
Last Review: 07-08-2014
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